Witaj Kazimierzu!
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Witaj Kazimierzu!

8

lubelskie

Kazimierz Dolny
Kazimierz Dolny

The areas surrounding Kazimierz Dolny feature exceptional landscapes typical of the Vistula Gorge, this section of which boasts an air of wilderness and beauty. The varied relief of this terrain is composed of hills, valleys and ravines carved into a thick layer of loess. Numerous stone quarries nestle among the hills and dales overgrown with lush plant life. The topography of the area and its location on the Vistula were decisive factors in determining the town’s architectural and urban form.

The earliest references to the town date from the 12th century. The name ‘Kazimierz’ appears in historic records for the first time in 1249. The existence of a river crossing, a customs post, and trade routes leading to Ruthenia, the West and the Teutonic state dictated the founding of a market settlement and its further development. In the 14th century Kazimierz Wielki granted the town a charter. The Magdeburg Charter, which the town was granted in 1406 by Władysław Jagiełło, introduced a new system of town government and urban organisation. A new and larger market square was delineated, flanked by three densely packed rows of timber-and-masonry houses. Trade along the Vistula began to flourish in the 16th century, bringing Kazimierz’s citizens great wealth. It peaked in the first half of the 17th century, and then gradually began to decline, leaving Kazimierz to slowly set in its quaint form. In the 19th century it became a summer resort and an outdoor painting venue for artists.

The town’s exceptional aesthetic qualities had already gained the appreciation of artists by the late 18th century. Its charm also captivated the 19th-century graphic artists and painters, Adam Lerue, Wojciech Gerson, Michał Elwiro Andriolli and Józef Brandt. In 1909 Władysław Ślewiński organised the first outdoor painting event. Jewish painters and graphic artists were also active at this time. However, the true ‘discovery’ of Kazimierz by the artistic community came in the interwar period. From 1923 onwards regular plein air painting sessions were organised there by Tadeusz Pruszkowski, who amassed a sizeable number of followers. In time, a group of artists with strong links to Kazimierz emerged from their ranks, founding St Luke’s Fellowship.

The pride of the town are its houses: those belonging to the Przybyło family on the Market Square (St Nicholas and St Christopher, 1615) and the Celejów building (1635) on Senatorska Street (which now houses a branch of the Vistula Museum). They are distinctive for their richly decorated façades with elaborate attic storeys accounting for almost one third of their height. They represent an amalgamation of forms stemming from Renaissance and Mannerist architecture of Italian and Dutch provenance, and vernacular traditions. A fine timber well dating from 1905 occupies the centre of the market square, whilst imposing masonry granaries stand at the edges of the town. In the mid-17th century they numbered around 60, most of them with decorative gables inspired by northern Mannerism. An air of romance pervades the ruins of the medieval castle, which was enlarged by Casimir the Great. Located on a hilltop, the Church of SS John the Baptist and Bartholomew, once a Gothic building, was remodelled in 1586-1589 and 1610-1613 in ‘Lublin Renaissance’ style. Points of interest inside the church include its 17th-century organ - the oldest instrument of this type in Poland to survive entirely intact. The Hospital Church and the Reformed Church were raised around the mid-17th century in Baroque style. There is also a synagogue, built in 1536. Jews originally lived in the southern quarter near the market square, and on Lubelska Street, becoming the town’s dominant community by the late 18th century.

The ravages of two world wars affected, albeit to varying degrees, virtually the whole town, leading to the need for its comprehensive re-evaluation which was conducted in 1947-1958. The reconstruction of Kazimierz Dolny was carried out based on a design by the architect Karol Siciński, who managed to recapture the town’s atmosphere.

Granary, currently used as the Natural Museum – a branch of the Vistula Riverside Museum
Kazimierz Dolny

one hour

The Ulanowski Granary belongs to a group of unique granaries constructed back in the 17th century, their characteristic feature being the presence of decorative gables reminiscent of North European Mannerist architecture, with a sprinkle of local tradition added for a good measure. The building is an important element in the spatial layout of Kazimierz Dolny.

History

The granary is believed to have been erected somewhere around the year 1595 by Mikołaj Przybyła, replacing the wooden structure known as the Rogaliński granary. It is believed that this granary was the first brick and stone structure of this kind on the Bochotnickie (Gdańskie) Przedmieście street. Both its overall shape and its interiors were designed according to the best medieval traditions of granary construction. During the second decade of the 17th century, the building received its decorative gable coping, modelled after the local parish church (completed in 1613); as a result, the granary joined the group of newly-erected structures in Kazimierz which were designed in the Northern Mannerist style. The building was commonly referred to as the “High Granary”; later on, it was renamed the Ulanowski Granary, taking its name from its new owners. This is because, towards the end of the 18th century, the granary was acquired by Maciej Ulanowski, the erstwhile mayor of the town. During World War I, the building has suffered major damage, being left in a state of partial ruin. In 1926, the granary was adapted to serve as a tannery. Following the ravages of World War II, the structure was reconstructed in years 1946-1949 under the supervision off Karol Siciński. The building was then taken over by the “Farmers’ Self-Help” Communal Cooperative and, for many years, served as a warehouse for plastic products. Following a period of complete disuse, the building underwent a comprehensive restoration in years 1976-1986, being adapted to serve the needs of the Natural Museum, a branch of the Vistula Riverside Museum.

Description

The building is located on Puławska street; along with the neighbouring building known as the Feierstein Granary, it marks the course of the former frontage of the so-called Gdańskie Przedmieście street. The front façade of the building faces the north-west, towards the Vistula river. The building represents a local variant of Northern Mannerism.

Designed on a rectangular floor plan, the building is divided into two storage chambers with a transfer annex positioned on the axis of its front façade and incorporating a staircase leading to the first floor of the building. The building itself is a two-storey structure with a basement, covered with a gable roof with brick gables. The annex, reaching all the way to the base of the front façade gable, is covered with a shed roof. The building is made of limestone, its walls covered with plaster; all roofs are clad with roof tiles. The façade is divided into three levels and follows a four-axial design, topped with a triangular gable, the two middle axes of the façade being obscured by the annex. The gable, clearly separated from the rest of the structure and partitioned into three distinct levels by pronounced cornices, features a decorative coping adorned with volutes and pinnacles. In the very centre of the gable are two embedded panels; the upper one, vacant today, originally bore the date “1838”, while the lower one carries the hierogram of Jesus Christ. The façades, topped with a cornice and narrow skirt roof, are pierced by a number of windows, some of them rectangular, other taking the form of narrow slits.

The ground floor level of the annex features an arcade composed of semi-circular arches with a barrel vault above, the latter featuring intersecting lunettes. The entrances to the building are topped with segmental arches. The corners of the building, originally supported by buttresses, are now accentuated by faux sgraffito quoins, as are the major openings in its façades.

Accessible from Tuesday to Sunday between 9 AM and 4 PM

Exceptions: January 1 (New Year), Easter Sunday, Corpus Christi (until 1 PM), November 1 and November 11 and December 25 (Christmas Day). phone number: 81 8810326, website: www.muzeumnadwislanskie.pl

compiled by Anna Sikora-Terlecka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 26-03-2015.

Bibliography

  • Husarski W., Kazimierz Dolnym, Lublin 1953.
  • Kazimierz Dolny. Przewodnik po mieście i okolicach, Z. Nestorowicz (ed.), Lublin 2014, p. 231
  • Teodorowicz-Czerepińska J., Studium historyczno-urbanistyczne Kazimierza Dolnego, Lublin 1974, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin, file no. 370 vol. II, pp. 154-156
  • Teodorowicz-Czerepińska J., Kazimierz Dolny. Monografia historyczno-urbanistyczna, Kazimierz Dolny 1981, pp. 45-46
  • Żurawski J., Spichlerze zbożowe Kazimierza Dolnego. Historia i Teraźniejszość, Kazimierz Dolny 1998
  • Architectural monument record sheet. The Ulanowski Granary, compiled by A. Cebulak, Kazimierz Dolny 1999, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin (file no. 4055).

Granary, currently disused
Kazimierz Dolny

30 minutes

The so-called Feierstein Granary belongs to a group of unique granaries constructed back in the 17th century, their characteristic feature being the presence of decorative gables reminiscent of Northern Mannerist architecture, with a sprinkle of local tradition added for a good measure. Today, the granary remains a valuable addition to the overall layout of the northern part of town.

History

The former granary building was most likely built somewhere around 1615, its owner being Krzysztof Przybyła. The edifice remained in the hands of his successors in title until somewhere around the mid- 18th century. Later on, the granary was acquired by Michał Mniszech and then, in 1772, by Paulina Jabłonowska. In 1827, the building was purchased by Adam Jaraczewski, who later sold it to Józef Krasiński around 1835; a mere three years later the granary changed hands yet again, this time coming into possession of Mejer Wilf Feierstein (Feuerstein). The new owner immediately began alteration works on the building, extending it upwards by one storey and adding an external flight of wooden steps. During the interwar period, the building was adapted to serve as a tannery. During World War II, the building has suffered some serious damage, including the partial destruction of its roof. In years 1947-1948, the building underwent a series of revitalisation works under the supervision of Karol Siciński. The process of comprehensive restoration has begun, with the changes introduced in 1838 being removed. In 1959, the building was acquired by the State Treasury. It was then adapted to serve as a purchasing centre and warehouse of the “Gardener” Regional Gardening Cooperative in Nałęczów. A further series of renovation works began in 1983 once the building was acquired by its new owner - the Vistula Riverside Museum.

Description

The building is located on Puławska street; along with the neighbouring building known as the Ulanowski Granary, it marks the course of the former frontage of the so-called Gdańskie Przedmieście street (also known as Bochotnickie Przedmieście). The front façade of the building faces the north-west, towards the Vistula river. The building represents a local variant of Northern Mannerism.

Designed on a rectangular floor plan, the building is divided into two storage chambers with a transfer annex positioned on the axis of its front façade. The building itself is a two-storey structure with a basement, covered with a gable roof with brick gables. The annex, reaching all the way to the base of the front façade gable, is covered with a shed roof. The building is made of limestone, its walls covered with plaster; all roofs are clad with roof tiles. The façade is divided into three levels and follows a four-axial design, topped with a triangular gable, the two middle axes of the façade being obscured by the annex. The gable, clearly distinguishable from the rest of the façade and partitioned by pronounced cornices into three distinct levels, features an ornamental coping adorned with volutes and pinnacles. In the very centre of the gable are two embedded panels; the upper one, vacant today, originally bore the date “1838”, while the lower one carries the hierogram of Jesus Christ. The façades, topped with a cornice and narrow skirt roof, are pierced by a number of windows, some of them rectangular, other taking the form of narrow slits.

The ground floor level of the annex features an arcade composed of semi-circular arches with a barrel vault above, the latter featuring intersecting lunettes. The entrances to the building are topped with segmental arches. The corners of the building, originally supported by buttresses, are now accentuated by faux sgraffito quoins, as are the major openings in its façades.

The building can be viewed from the outside.

compiled by Anna Sikora-Terlecka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 24-03-2015.

Bibliography

  • Husarski W., Kamienice renesansowe w Kazimierzu Dolnym, Lublin 1950, pp. 123-124
  • Kazimierz Dolny. Przewodnik po mieście i okolicach, Z. Nestorowicz (ed.), Lublin 2014, pp. 233-234
  • Architectural monument record sheet. The Feierstein Granary, compiled by J. Teodorowicz-Czerepińska, Kazimierz Dolny 2003, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin
  • Teodorowicz-Czerepińska J., Kazimierz Dolny. Monografia historyczno-urbanistyczna, Kazimierz Dolny 1981, pp. 45-46
  • Teodorowicz-Czerepińska J., Rozpoznanie historyczne tzw. Spichlerza Feirsteina w Kazimierzu Dolnym, Lublin 1985, typescript available at the Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin, file no. 150

The bath house, currently serving as the building of the Association of Polish Filmmakers, a restaurant and a guest house
Kazimierz Dolny

15 minuts

An example of a rare type of public building from the interwar period, designed by the eminent architect Jan Koszczyc-Witkiewicz in the so-called national style. Today, the building remains a significant part of the landscape of the historic Senatorska street.

History

The building of the former bath house and laundry was erected in years 1920-22, based on the design created by Jan Koszczyc-Witkiewicz, its original name being “The Bathing and Disinsection Facility built by the General Extraordinary Station for Epidemic Control”. The design of the building is reminiscent of a traditional Polish manor house. After World War II, the building was converted to serve as a guest house. Having stood abandoned for a number of years, in 1986 the edifice was finally restored and adapted as a guest house and restaurant. Today, the building remains in the hands of the Association of Polish Filmmakers.

Description

The building is located near the western end of Senatorska street. It was designed in the Polish national style.

Built on an L-shaped floor plan, it consists of two wings arranged perpendicularly towards one another, with the gable wall of one of the wings facing the street. The old bath house is a single-storey structure with a habitable attic, its corners supported by buttresses; the northern wing is covered with a gable roof, while the southern one features a so-called Polish mansard roof, the distinctive feature of which is the almost identical angle of both the lower and the upper slopes. All roofs feature pronounced eaves supported by decorative corbels. The surfaces of the roof are punctuated with dormers and oeil-de-boeuf windows. The building is made of limestone, its walls covered with plaster; all roofs are clad with roof tiles.

The entrance in the front façade is positioned inside a deep, arched portal; the façade also features a stone plaque which carries an inscription that reads as follows: “Jan Witkiewicz Koszczyc uzdajał 1921” (Designed by Jan Witkiewicz Koszczyc, 1921). The stepped gable above the entrance, adorned with small pinnacles, is reminiscent of Baroque architecture and features a pair of rectangular windows separated by a wall with rounded edges.

At the spot where both wings of the building meet there is an external flight of steps covered with a shed roof supported by low, stout pillars.

Both the vestibule and the hall feature a surviving sgraffito frieze incorporating both foliate and figural motifs.

The historic monument is accessible all year round.

compiled by Anna Sikora-Terlecka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 20-01-2015.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet, Municipal bath house, compiled by Jadwiga Czerepińska, Kazimierz Dolny, 1982, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin.
  • Kazimierz Dolny. Przewodnik po mieście i okolicach, Z. Nestorowicz (ed.), Lublin 2014, p. 186
  • Kurzątkowski M., Jan Koszczyc - Witkiewicz. Lata nałęczowskie i kazimierskie. Wystawa zorganizowana w 100-lecie urodzin, Kazimierz Dolny 1981 [page numbering unavailable]
  • Leśniakowska M., "Architekt Jan Koszczyc Witkiewicz (1881-1958) i budowanie w jego czasach", Warsaw 1998, pp. 199-201
  • Teodorowicz - Czerepińska J., Kazimierz Dolny. Monografia historyczno-urbanistyczna, Kazimierz Dolny 1981, pp. 97,100.

Wieża
Kazimierz Dolny

one hour

Post mill
Kazimierz Dolny

one hour

One of the few surviving structures of its kind in the Lublin region, the windmill dominates the surrounding landscape in the area around Mięćmierz and remains a direct link to a local tradition of windmill construction in this area.

History

The post mill was erected somewhere around the year 1911, originally forming part of the village of Osiny. In 1975, it was relocated to Mięćmierz Okale and positioned atop an elevated part of the surrounding terrain where, according to both historical accounts and a 19th-century watercolour painting of the area by Kazimierz Stronczyński, a number of similar structures had once stood. Owing to the efforts of its owners, Maria and Ryszard Dziadosz, the structure of the windmill remains intact, with the only part that was added at a later date being the sails. In years 1975-1982, the interior was adapted to serve residential purposes. In 1997, the owner of the mill designed and constructed an external staircase. From 2002 onwards, one of the co-owners of the windmill is Maria Warszawska, who in 2013 opened a seasonal café known as “Pod Skrzydłami” (Underneath the Sails) inside the building.

Description

The structure is located on an elongated, rectangular plot of land at the south-eastern edge of the village, in the vicinity of the nearby nature reservation. Standing atop a tall escarpment of the Vistula river, the windmill towers above the surrounding area while at the same time also serving as an observation deck which gives a commanding view of the river breaks and the Janowiec village.

The windmill was designed on a rectangular floor plan. It is a three-storey structure, covered with a gable roof with a jerkin head. The windmill is a post-and-frame structure positioned on brick foundations, with the original central post (known also as the king post) positioned atop a trestle. The gable roof features a jerkin head on the sail side and is clad with wood shingles. The walls are covered with vertically positioned weatherboards. The front façade features an overhanging gable clad with decorative weatherboards and featuring a fretwork decoration resembling a pelmet. The main entrance is located on the ground floor level, with the modern external staircase leading to the upper storeys of the windmill. The four sails of the windmill, reconstructed in the modern times, are positioned on the rear (windward) side of the structure.

The interiors, adapted for residential purposes, still feature parts of the orginal fixtures and fittings.

Accessible from Tuesday to Sunday between 9 AM and 4 PM

Exceptions: January 1 (New Year), Easter Sunday, Corpus Christi (until 1 PM), November 1 and November 11 and December 25 (Christmas Day).

compiled by Anna Sikora-Terlecka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin.

Bibliography

  • Nestorowicza Z., Kazimierz Dolny. Przewodnik po mieście i okolicach, Lublin 2014, p.
  • Teodorowicz - Czerepińska J., Kazimierz Dolny. Monografia historyczno-urbanistyczna, Kazimierz Dolny 1981, p.

ruiny zamku
Janowiec

two hours

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