Śladami poznańskich ewangelików
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Śladami poznańskich ewangelików

10

wielkopolskie

Evangelical church of the Holy Cross, currently Roman Catholic parish church of All Saints
Poznań

15 minuts

The former Evangelical church of the Holy Cross is one of the oldest surviving and at the same time the most spectacular Protestant church in the capital city of Greater Poland, inspired with the architecture of Baroque Evangelical churches from Berlin and Dresden and Late Baroque Catholic churches of Greater Poland. The author of the design is Antoni Höhne The sculpture décor is attributed to Augustyn Schöps. The central, gallery composition of the interior, incorporated in the rectangular layout of the building, as well as its fittings: main altar and Rococo pipe organ casing, as well as classical pulpit, are worth particular attention.

The historical building is located in the area designated as a monument of history (“Poznań - the historical urban complex” - Regulation of the President of the Republic of Poland of 28-11-2008).

History

The popularity of reformatory trends in the spirit of the teachings of Martin Luther was at its peak in Poznań in mid-16th century. They had their nest in the palace belonging to the prominent Górka family, located at Wodna Street, where in the years 1540-1543, a private church operated. In 1571, Jesuits came to Poznań. It was then when Lutherans were forbidden to hold services within the city walls and erected a house of prayer on Góra Czerwowska (also called Winna Góra or Łysa Góra), located to the north from the Hill of St Adalbert. In the late 16th century, it was replaced by a wooden church, burned down in 1616. From that time on, for more than 150 years, Evangelicals did not have their own church in Poznań.

On 5 March 1768, the Sejm granted to Protestants the right to worship freely, which had direct influence on the decision to build an Evangelical church and purchase land for that purpose in the Grobla suburbs of Poznań. In 1777, king Stanisław August conferred a privilege permitting its construction, ant three months later, the cornerstone was laid.

The Evangelical church of the Holy Cross was designed by Antoni Höhne and built in the years 1777-1783. The sculpture décor is attributed to Augustyn Schöps who, in the years 1781-1785, made, among other things: three sculptures of Three Theological Virtues - Faith, Hope, and Love (not preserved), figures of the four Evangelists by the altar, sculptures of the Atlantes supporting the western gallery, and - most probably - the figures of St Paul and St Peter crowing the main portal built in 1802-1803. In 1785, the main altar and the Rococo pipe organ casing were made.

In approx. 1908, from Ewangelicka Street, a neo-Baroque gate was built, and in the years 1912-1913, on the southern side of the church, a pastor’s house and school building (currently a parish house) was erected with the same stylistic features.

In 1945, the church was handed over to Catholics. In the years 1950s, the former church of the Holy Cross was an academic church. The Roman Catholic parish of All Saints, to which it belongs today, was created in the years 1979-1981.

Description

The complex of the former Evangelical church of the Holy Cross in Poznań is located on the left bank of the Warta river, within the historical old town, in a quarter delimited by the Ewangelicka, Grobla, Mostowa, and Łazienna Street. It is comprised of a centrally located church and a neo-Baroque building of the former pastor’s house and school (currently the parish house) on the south, the area of the former Evangelical cemetery, and the entrance gate on the north. The complex is circumscribed from the west and south with a contemporary, metal, cast fence on a brick, on a plastered foundation which gives way to a solid wall on the north.

The church was built in the Baroque style with classical features, on a rectangular floor plan, from brick. It is plastered. Its body is cuboidal, two-storey, covered with a hip roof clad with slate, adjoined on the axis of the western front façade by a high tower built on a square floor plan, covered with a tented roof. Its bottom storey houses a porch. The dominant element of the opposite, eastern façade is a two-storey avant-corps on the axis with a sacristy on the ground floor and premises of the former library and archives on the first floor. On the axis of the side (northern and southern) façades, there are false, two-storey, single-axis avant-corps, accentuated with rustication in the ground floor section, two pairs of pilasters in the first floor section, topped with triangular pediments. Plain partitions of the façade are decorated by pairs of pilasters and a spectacular crowning cornice reflecting, in a simplified form, the partitions of ancient entablature with false triglyphs and corbels.

The central interior on the ellipsoidal floor plan is accentuated by eight piers, embraced by pairs of pilasters with Ionic capitals with further double rows of arches, converging in one point on the plafond of the wooden false cupola embellished with metal stars covering ventilation openings. On the northern, southern, and western wall there are galleries resting on piers (northern and southern wall), supported by Atlantes (western wall), and on the eastern wall, there is a main altar from 1785 with a depiction of the Last Supper, embraced by figures of the four Evangelists, a Rococo pipe organ casing over it from the same year, and a classical pulpit resting on a column clock, originally topped with a sculpture depicting Moses, attributed to Augustyn Schöps, which is currently placed in the vestibule.

The former building of the pastor’s house and school (1912-1913) on the southern side of the church was erected from brick on a rectangular floor plan and plastered. Its cuboid body is covered with a hip roof laid with roof tiles. The two-storey façades are topped with decorative, also two-storey gables on the northern and southern side, set on the axis, framed with volutes and crowned with triangular pediments with relief decoration in the tympanums.

The neo-Baroque gate, made of brick and plastered, leading to the complex from Ewangelicka Street, comes from the early 20th century and is topped with an elliptical opening and a decorative section of a cornice, and flanked with two arcaded wicket gates, over which there are vases.

The monument is accessible to visitors. More information on the opening hours and services can be found on the website www.grobla.info (access date: 16-10-2014).

compiled by Anna Dyszkant, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 16-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Atlas architektury Poznania, Poznań 2008, s. 139.
  • Błaszczyk I., Dawny zbór Świętego Krzyża na Grobli, Poznań 2001.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. VII: Miasto Poznań, cz. II, 2: Środmieście, kościoły i klasztory, oprac. Kurzawa Zofia, Kusztelski Andrzej, Warszawa 2002, s. 94-101.
  • Ostrowska-Kębłowska Z., Architektura i budownictwo w Poznaniu w latach 1780-1880, Poznań 2009, s. 60-68.

transport time to the next site

3 min

3 min

pałac Górków
Poznań

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

3 min

4 min

gimnazjum, ob. III Liceum Ogólnokształcące św. Jana Kantego
Poznań

transport time to the next site

2 min

2 min

Old Lutheran church, currently Evangelical–Methodist parish church of the Holy Cross
Poznań

15 minuts

A neo-Gothic, small church with an interesting body, inspired, in the architectural solutions visible in the front façade, by the Evangelical church of St Paul (currently the Roman Catholic church of the Holiest Saviour) at Fredry Street in Poznań. One of the historical, surviving, originally Evangelical churches in the city.

The historical building is located in the area designated as a monument of history (“Poznań - the historical urban complex” - Regulation of the President of the Republic of Poland of 28-11-2008).

History

The church of the Holy Cross was erected for the Evangelical-Lutheran community, also called Old Lutheran. The Evangelical-Lutheran Church came into being as a result of separation of the opponents of the United and Uniting Churches, created in 1817 under the administrative union uniting the Lutheran and the Calvinist Church, introduced by Frederick William III of Prussia.

The Old Lutheran community was created in Poznań in 1835. Initially, its members held services in a building at Ogrodowa Street, located on the same plot, apportioned out of the land originally belonging to the Mycielski family, which was handed over to the Lutheran community as part of compensation for the cemetery of the Hill of St Adalbert, taken from the community in the first half of the 19th century. In its western part, there was a manor house which was designated to serve as a pastor’s house. In the garden surrounding it, a cemetery was created, consecrated in 1831, to which grave monuments from earlier Protestant graveyards were transferred.

The church of the Holy Cross was built in the years 1885-1886 according to a design by architect Bernhard Below. The master constructor was Julius Klau. The building was erected on a plot located east of the cemetery. In the interwar period, the cemetery was closed and no longer used for burial purposes. During the war, it was destroyed, which was one of the reasons for its liquidation in the years 1948-1950 and for the creation of the Park of Liberation on its terrain (currently the Jan Henryk Dąbrowski Park). The church, although damaged, had survived through the war and in 1946, it was donated to the Evangelical-Methodist community, to which it belongs today. On 8 June 1947, after the church was rebuilt and the interior was furnished with a new altarpiece, stained glass windows, organ gallery, and pews, the first mass was celebrated in it.

During the 1950s, the pipe organ was replaced by a pump organ from the turn of the 19th and the 20th century. In the years 1970-1984, in two pairs of window openings in the southern part of the church’s nave, new stained glass panes were installed. In 1984 and 1986, slate covering the roof was replaced by copper sheet metal.

Description

The plot on which the church is located, is situated at the intersection of Ogrodowa, Piekary, and Krysiewicza Streets, in the north-eastern corner of the Jan Henryk Dąbrowski Park. The building is located in the central part of the plot. On its south-western side, on an adjacent plot, there is a four-storey outbuilding comprised of two wings connected at an obtuse angle, where probably services were held at first. From the side of Ogrodowa Street, and partially from the side of the park, the land plot is circumscribed by a cast fence with brick spans, on a foundation. The church’s front façade faces north.

It is neo-Gothic in style. The elongated rectangle of the nave is adjoined from the south by a narrower, rectangular chancel. In the south-eastern corner which forms the body of the main nave and the chancel, there is a rectangular sacristy, perpendicular to it. From the north, the nave is adjoined by a tower built on a square floor plan, and on the sides, by two semi-hexagonal annexes.

A dominating element in the compact, bricked body of the church, faced with clinker brick, is the three-storey tower preceding the front façade, topped with a high, pyramid tented roof resting on an octagonal plinth. The nave and the lower chancel is covered with a gable roof, and the sacristy - with a flat roof. The annexes on both sides of the tower are topped with three-sloped roofs. All roofs are clad with copper sheet metal.

The façade is closed by a triangular gable topped with a corbelled cornice. In its face, on each side of the tower, there are three high pointed-arch blind windows with paired window openings. On the axis of the front façade, there is a high, three-storey tower, embraced by corner, single-step buttresses reaching the height of the upper storey. Within the bottom storey, there is a pointed-arch, stepped door opening, decorated in mid-height with little stone columns with surrounds, topped with capitals adorned with foliate motifs. The upper storey contains a tripartite window opening with semi-circular top section. The highest storey is crowned by a corbelled cornice, and there is a high, pointed-arch, stepped window opening in the front. Side façades of the tower on that level contain bipartite blind windows with round blind windows over them. The high pyramid tented roof with window openings at the base rests on an octagonal plinth with three slits corresponding to directions of the world.

On both sides of the tower, there are one-storey semi-hexagonal annexes resting on a high plinth, with five pointed-arch window openings in niches, covered with three-sloped roofs reaching the base of the triangular gable of the front façade.

Side façades of the church are four-axis, with high, pointed-arch window openings resting on a high plinth topped with an eaves cornice, partitioned, at two third of their height, with a dentil frieze running horizontally along the church’s body. The façades, similarly as the triangular gables, are topped with a crowning cornice resting on brick corbels. The nave body are reinforced from the south by two corner buttresses. In the side façades of the chancel, there are single pointed-arch window opening.

The single-nave interior of the church and the chancel which is elevated in relation to it and separated by a high pointed-arch rood arcade, are covered by tented weatherboarding. The fittings of the church come from the post-war period, except from the pump organ from the turn of the 19th and the 20th century, which was installed in the 1950s of the last century. In window openings of the nave body, there are stained glass windows made during the post-war reconstruction of the church and in the 1970s and 1980s.

Limited access to the historic building. More information on the opening hours and services can be found on the website of the Evangelical-Methodist parish www.metodysci-poznan.pl (access date: 16-06-2015)

compiled by Anna Dyszkant, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 17-06-2015.

Bibliography

  • Atlas architektury Poznania, Poznań 2008, s. 217.
  • Gołdych J., Kościół staroluterski św. Krzyża przy ul. Ogrodowej, „Kronika Miasta Poznania” 2007, nr 3, s. 98-106.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. VII: Miasto Poznań, cz. II, 2: Śródmieście, kościoły i klasztory 2, pod red. Kurzawy Z., Kusztelskiego A., Warszawa 2002, s. 108-109.

transport time to the next site

8 min

7 min

kościół ewangelicki pw. św. Mateusza, ob rzymskokatolicki parafialny pw. Marii Królowej
Poznań

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

10 min

8 min

ewangelicki dom związkowy, ob. Wyższa Szkoła Muzyczna
Poznań

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

3 min

5 min

kościół parafialny pw. Najświętszego Zbawiciela
Poznań

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

7 min

7 min

kościół ewangelicki, ob. rzymskokatolicki garnizonowy pw. Podwyższenia Krzyża Świętego
Poznań

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

8 min

6 min

kościół ewangelicki, ob. rzymskokatolicki pw. św. Anny
Poznań

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

6 min

6 min

szpital diakonisek, ob. Szpital Kliniczny nr 2
Poznań

15 minuts

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