Śladami Franciszka Ludwika von Neuburga
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Adrian Dwornicki

Śladami Franciszka Ludwika von Neuburga

8

one day

dolnośląskie, opolskie

Parish Church of Sts. Nicholas and Francis Xavier
Otmuchów

30 minutes

The church founded by the bishops of Wrocław features works made by outstanding Silesian painters: Michael L. Willmann and Carl Dankwart. The original décor and fittings together with the architecture form a complete uniform work of art.

History

The bishops of Wrocław had their seat in Otmuchów from the 13th century to the early 19th century. To them the ty owes, among others, the construction of the castle, palace and town hall. The first church of St. John the Baptist was erected there in the 13th century, then it served as a collegiate church for some time. In the second half of the 17th century, bishop Franz Ludwig decided to replace the stone church which was rebuilt several times with a new building, and entrusted J.P. Dobler with the development of its design. Soon after the demolition (1690), the foundation stone was laid, and the construction of the current Church of Sts. Nicholas and Francis Xavier was completed in 1693. Painted decorations were authored by Karl Dankwart (known, among others, for his works in the Church of Sts. James and Agnes in Nysa). The main altar made by Johann Weinmann of Ellwangen was consecrated in 1701.

Description

The Baroque masonry church is situated on a hill in the western part of the city. It consists of a three-aisle body with a transept and a westward-facing and apse-finished chancel. The eastern part is composed of two towers; the church is covered with a gable roof. The thee-storey façade is partitioned with pilasters and surmounted by a gable adorned with a volute-shaped coping and flanked by towers topper with cupolas. The main aisle opens up towards the side chapels with galleries in a series of arches. The lavishly designed interior is covered with a barrel vault on arches and lunettes. Colourful and grisaille paintings on the ceilings and walls were authored by Karl Dankwart. The stucco work was made by Giovanni Alberti, Bartolomeo Mutino, and Pietro Simonetti. Paintings on the ceilings, some of them in stucco frames, depict biblical scenes and the lift of the church's patron saints, Nicholas and Francis Xavier. The fixtures and fittings date back to the time of the foundation of the church, from the 17th/18th century. The apse of the chancel is fitted with an altar with the painting of St. Nicholas blessing the castaways made by Michael Willmann (1696). The second painting by the same artist entitled "The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist" is located in one of the eight side altars. The pulpit (1696) with a balustrade with bas-reliefs of evangelists is crowned with a canopy with figures of Christ and four Fathers of the Church. The chancel is also fitted with two stalls with lavish woodcarving decoration (1694-1695).

The structure is used and open to visitors.

compiled by Joanna Szot, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 01-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Biller L., Neisse, Ottmachau und Patschkau, die Städte am Mittelauf der Glatzer Neisse (Veröffentlichungen der Schlesien Gesellschaft für Erkunde E.V. und des Geographischen Instituts der Universität Breslau, H. 15), Breslau 1932.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, vol. VII: Województwo opolskie, issue 3: Powiat grodkowski, prepared by T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki, Warsaw 1964.
  • Lutsch H., Bilderwerk schlesischer Kunstdenkmaler, Breslau 1903.
  • Lutsch H., Verzeichnis der Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Schlesien, Bd. 4: Die Kunstdenkmäler des Reg.-Bezirks Oppeln, Tl. 1, Breslau 1890.
  • Steinborn B., Otmuchów, Paczków (Śląsk w zabytkach sztuki), Wrocław 1982.
  • Weber R., Schlesische Schlösser, Dresden-Breslau 1909.
  • Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warsaw 2006.

transport time to the next site

2 min

Palace, so-called Lower Castle, currently the Municipal Office
Otmuchów

15 minuts

The Baroque palace was founded by the Bishops of Wrocław, whose presence in Otmuchów dates back to the 13th century. Since 1741, when the Upper Castle was shelled during the First Silesian War, it served as the bishop's seat in Otmuchów, and since 1821 it was inhabited by Wilhelm v. Humboldt. Formal solutions used by designer Michał Klein can be found in his projects executed in Nysa.

History

The initiation of the constructions and founder of the new palace at the foot of the bishops' castle in Otmuchów was Bishop of Wrocław Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg (1783-1732). He commissioned Michał Klein (architect of the town of Nysa since 1697, who served as the architect of the bishop's residence since 1714) to design the palace. The contract concerning the commission dated 25 September 1706 has been preserved to this day. The palace was completed in 1707.

Since 1810, the bishops' property in Otmuchów in the form of the Upper and Lower Castle and pheasantry was taken by the Prussian state, and 11 years later it was returned to Minister Wilhelm v. Humboldt. The baron and his family settled in the palace, because the technical condition of the castle did not allow for its use.

In that century, the palace was extended by an avant-corps with a terrace to the south and a western annex. During adaptation of the palace for use as a school in 1927, the interiors on the ground floor underwent alterations.

Wilhelm's son, Bernhard Humboldt-Dachröden, sold the castle with the palace and pheasantry to the town in 1929.

The building housed a primary school in the 1960s and a nursery in the 1970s. Currently, the Lower Castle is the seat of the Municipal Office in Otmuchów.

Description

The palace is located on the north-east slope of the castle hill, south of the Market Square. The area of the palace is fenced: a fence in the form of iron grates stretching between masonry and plastered pillars.

The two-storey building with a basement is covered with a tall hip roof clad with roof tiles. The main entrance leads from the north through stone stairs. The body on a rectangular floor plan was extended to the south on the axis by an avant-corps with a terrace on the upper storey and a multi-storey annex with a terrace to the west.

The façades of the Baroque palace are set on a tall base course and arranged symmetrically; on the ground floor they are adorned with rustication. The central axis of the front façade with a portal surmounted by an arch is accentuated with pilasters in the so-called giant order, with Ionic capitals. At the first floor level, which is separated by a cornice beneath the windows, the front facade is divided by lesenes. The portal with a rusticated archivolt is surmounted by a keystone. Rectangular windows on the ground floor are fitted with profiled surrounds, and on the first floor they are embellished with pilasters with Ionic capitals, surmounted by a broken segmental pediment with volutes. The remaining façades are designed in a similar fashion.

The interior was divided into two bays, and the middle part is occupied by a hallway. The rooms on the ground floor are vaulted. As a result of the alterations associated with the change in the function of the building, the palace interior lost its former imposing décor.

The structure can be view from the outside; viewing of the interior is possible by arrangement with the owner.

compiled by Joanna Szot, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 19-08-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bandurska Z., Otmuchów. Studium hist.-architektoniczne zamku i pałacu biskupów wrocławskich, Monument Conservation Workshop, branch office in Wrocław, 1975, vol. I-II, typescript.
  • Biller L., Neisse, Ottmachau und Patschkau, die Städte am Mittelauf der Glatzer Neisse (Veröffentlichungen der Schlesien Gesellschaft für Erkunde E.V. und des Geographischen Instituts der Universität Breslau, H. 15), Breslau 1932.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, vol. VII: Województwo opolskie, issue 3: Powiat grodkowski, prepared by T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki, Warsaw 1964.
  • Steinborn B., Otmuchów, Paczków (Śląsk w zabytkach sztuki), Wrocław 1982.
  • Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warsaw 2006, p. 662.

transport time to the next site

2 min

kościół filialny pw. św. Anny
Otmuchów

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

8 min

pałacyk myśliwski
Wierzbno

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

21 min

pałac biskupi, ob. Muzeum Miejskie
Nysa

two hours

transport time to the next site

24 min

Parish Church of St Laurence
Głuchołazy

30 minutes

The Baroque church features a fragment of the 13th-century west wall and a portal with Romanesque and Gothic traits with characteristic masks. Inside, there is a rich equipment, for example, Baroque altars and a painting by Michael Willmann or his associates. The building is crowned with cupolas designed by Hans Poelzig.

History

The Baroque church was erected between 1729 and 1731. Part of the west façade of the former Romanesque-Gothic church was used in the design. The designer was probably Johann I. Töpper, the author of churches in Głubczyce, Prudnik, Śmicz, and Ścinawa Nyska.

Description

The parish church was located in the east part of the mediaeval town, away from the market by a single block. It was built of brick, incorporating part of the west wall made of quarry stone. That oldest part is the remnant of the typical Romanesque two-tower arrangement. Four portholes have remained of the ancient structure along with single windows in stone surrounds. The main portal has Romanesque and Gothic traits: recessed, with ogival and profiled archivolt; the columns in reveals topped with heads bearing masks allegedly resembling the faces of the local friars.

The body of the church is three-nave, with a three-sided termination of the chancel. A small porch added from the south. The church roof is a double-pitched structure. The towers have superstructures and are topped with cupolas; their connecting wall is heightened.

The Baroque interior is covered with a barrel vault with stuccowork, framework ornamentation. The nave opens with arcades to the aisles; galleries present on the upper level. On the rood beam, a Latin inscription containing the date of foundation (the so-called chronogram). The neo-Baroque altar was made in 1921. The rest of the fittings date from the 18th century. The church boast as many as eight Baroque auxiliary altars. One of them (of Our Lady of Sorrows) contains a Baroque painting the Lamentation of Christ (end of the 17th c.). This is a copy of Van Dyck’s made in Michael Willmann’s workshop.

The monument is available to visitors.

Compiled by Joanna Szot, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 23-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. VII: Województwo opolskie, red. T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki, z. 9: Powiat nyski, oprac. T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki.
  • Kutzer P., Kirchengeschichte von Ziegenhals, Ziegenhals 1932.
  • Lutsch H., Verzeichnis der Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Schlesien, Bd. 4: Die Kunstdenkmäler des Reg.-Bezirks Oppeln, Tl. 1, Breslau 1890.
  • Świechowski Z., Katalog architektury romańskiej w Polsce, Warszawa 2009.
  • Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warszawa 2006.

transport time to the next site

1h 42 min

dawny sierociniec
Wrocław

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

4 min

katedra pw. św. Jana Chrzciciela
Wrocław

one hour

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