Małopolska mało znana
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour NID Grzegorz Młynarczyk

Małopolska mało znana

15

one day

małopolskie

Kraków - Historic City Complex
Kraków

15 minuts

The famous 17th-century engraver Matthäus Merian accompanied his copperplate engraving showing a panorama of Cracow with the caption Cracovia totius Poloniae urbs celeberrima atque amplissima, regia atque Academia insignis [Cracow, the most celebrated and splendid city in Poland, famed for its Royal Academy]. Thus, he ceonveyed the deeply held convictions of both residents and visitors to the city. The historic urban and architectural centre of Cracow, which has evolved over a period of almost 1000 years, constitutes one of the most superb artistic and cultural complexes in Europe (and was among the first sites inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List).

By the 8th century Cracow was already the political centre of the duchy of the Vistulans. The original settlement was located on Wawel Hill, the earliest recorded mention of the name ‘Cracow’ dating from ad 965. The 10th century saw the construction of Wawel’s first pre-Romanesque stone buildings: those associated with the ducal court, and the cathedral founded around the year 1000, clearly influenced by Ottonian art (including the Rotunda of the Virgin Mary). In 1076 the coronation of Boleslaus the Bold took place. Wawel’s frist cathedral was remodelled in Romanesque style prior to 1142 (St Leonard’s crypt survives intact representing this period). At the same time other settlements were burgeoning at the foot of Wawel Hill, and monumental buildings were being raised, such as the Church of St Andrew (late 11th century) with two octagonal towers. Cracow’s development was halted by the Tartar invasion of 1241. In 1257 Duke Bolesław the Bashful granted the town a new charter. The streets were laid out in a regular grid with a large market square at the centre.

In 1320 Cracow became the capital of Poland. A circuit of town walls, the first stretches of which had been built in the late 13th century, was completed in the 14th century. By the end of the 15th century the town had been encircled with a series of modern fortifications (extant components: the Barbican, St Florian’s Gate, and the Joiners’ and Haberdashers’ Towers). Gothic Cracow experienced a period of turbulent development in the 14th and early 15th centuries. It was then that the city’s most important buildings were raised, primarily in and around the market square. Notable medieval buildings in the square include St Adalbert’s Church (11th/12th century), the Town Hall tower, St Mary’s Basilica and the Cloth Hall - the most famous of medieval trade halls, built in 1380-1400 by connecting and remodelling a series of textile traders’ stalls. The brick-built Dominican (after 1222) and Franciscan (2nd quarter of the 13th century) churches were raised nearby. The Cracow school of Gothic architecture is represented by St Mary’s Basilica (the chancel dating from around the mid-14th century, and the nave from 1392-1397) with its remarkable altarpiece by Veit Stoss (1477-1489), acclaimed throughout Europe. In 1364 Casimir the Great founded the Cracow Academy. When the Academy was re-established in 1400 numerous university buildings came into being, foremost among them the Gothic Collegium Maius.

The city flourished during the Renaissance and early Baroque periods, in the 16th and first half of the 17th century, experiencing both architectural and artistic development. The gravestone of Ladislaus the Elbow-High (after 1333) was the first of a series of royal tombs to be housed in Wawel Cathedral; subsequent ones - those of Casimir the Great (after 1370), Ladislaus Jagiełło (c. 1420) and Casimir the Jagiellonian (1492) - represent outstanding achievements in European stonemasonry. Sigismund’s Chapel (B. Berrecci, 1517-1533) is the earliest of a number of domed funerary chapels representing an innovative Polish contribution to the art of the 16th and 17th centuries. The sepulchre of Sigismund the Old inside the chapel is the first in Poland to feature a recumbent effigy of the type inspired by Sansovino and frequently copied. Sigismund Augustus enhanced Wawel’s interior furnishings with an impressive set of Flemish tapestries, mistakenly referred to as arrases. The king, a great art connoisseur and collector, began acquiring them in c. 1553, and in 1571 bequeathed them to the nation. He commissioned them from the most highly skilled weavers in Brussels.

Transferring the royal seat to Warsaw in 1596 (formally in 1611) did not arrest the city’s development. The Baroque style made an early appearance when the Church of SS Peter and Paul (1596) was built. Cracow began to decline after the destruction and pillaging of the Swedish Deluge; however, despite its stagnation, impressive Baroque buildings continued to be raised (e.g. St Anne’s Church).

In 1335 Casimir the Great granted a town charter to Kazimierz, located south of Cracow, thus laying the foundations of the medieval ‘agglomeration’. Its focal point is the hill known as Skałka - a magical place to which kings came in pilgrimage. Each year a pilgrimage to venerate Stanislaus of Szczepanów sets off from this location, because it was here - according to legend - that he was martyred. A Jewish quarter was created in the 15th century at the northern end of Kazimierz, with a separate market square, numerous synagogues and a cemetery. The centre of the Oppidum Iudaeourum was today’s Szeroka Street. A number of historical monuments of Jewish culture survive, including the Old Synagogue - the earliest synagogue in Europe - and the Renaissance Remu’h Cemetery.

Following the Kościuszko Uprising (1794), which was instigated in Cracow, economic revival took place during the time of the formally independent Republic of Cracow (1815-1846). After the city was annexed by Austria, Cracow Fortress was built, along with numerous forts, earthworks and batteries. After having burned down in 1850, the rebuilding and expansion of the fortress marked a period of prosperity. In the final quarter of the 19th century Neo-Gothic architecture began to appear in Cracow. Many new public buildings were raised in Historicist style, superseded at the turn of the 19th century by Art Nouveau. During the Partitions of Poland, the city was the most important centre of Polishness, and the work of Stanisław Wyspiański, Jacek Malczewski and Jan Matejko immortalised this period. In 1914 Józef Piłsudski’s First Cadre Company set off from Cracow to fight for the country’s independence. After the war, the communist authorities sought to restrict the role of this conservative city. In 1949 construction work on the steel mill of Nowa Huta began, but this measure did not bring about the results anticipated by the authorities.

transport time to the next site

48 min

Lubomirski Castle - Museum of the Wiśnicz Region
Stary Wiśnicz

two hours

Kmitas’ and Lubomirskis’ castle is one of the most valuable early Baroque residential and defensive complex in Poland. The oldest part of the castle was built in the 14th century by the Kmita family. The body of the castle is built on a quadrilateral plan with an internal courtyard and four towers at the corners. From the north-east, there is a chapel from 1621 and from the south-east the so-called Kmitówka. Some of the most noteworthy decor includes the Baroque portals and window frames, stuccowork and murals. The palace is surrounded by fortifications of the early 17th century with an early Baroque entry gate in the east section.

History

In 1242, the House of Gryfit granted the settlement called Wiśnicze to the Benedictine nuns from Staniątki. From the 14th to the 16th century, the site was owned by the Kmita family and in the 17th century by the Lubomirskis. In 1616 Lubomirskis’ efforts led to the incorporation of Wiśnicz under Magdeburg Law. A characteristic feature in the landscape of Wiśnicz is a castle built by the Kmita-Szreniawit family. The beginnings of the castle are closely linked to the economic activity of the Kmita family of the Szreniawa coat of arms who, ca. mid-14th century, began to establish a huge estate around the Wiśnicz settlement. Probably erected at that time, the castle served as a defensive residence for the owners. Research shows that the founder of the fortified family seat was Jan Kmita, in the 1370s serving as the starost of Sieradz, Ruthenia and Kraków. Any mentions in the literature referring to the existence of a fortified building in Wiśnicz before the mid-14th century held by the Kmita family are only speculations. The first reliable confirmation of the existence of a defensive complex rising above the Leksandrówka River valley (“castrum”) is found in the accounts of the Bochnia salt mine from 1396-1397. Other document making references to the castle come from 1419 and 1441 and a record from 1443 mentions the local chaplain. The defensive residence remained in the possession of the Kmitas until the death of Piotr (1553), governor of Kraków in the years 1536-1553. The property was administered by, for example, the Kraków governor, Piotr V Kmita; his house was visited by such members of the nobility as Marcin Bielski, Jakub Przyłuski and Stanisław Orzechowski. In 1550 Sigismund Augustus stopped at Wiśnicz with Barbara Radziwiłłowna; the legend has it that it was there that Barbara was administered a slow-acting but deadly poison. From 1554 the castle belonged to the Barz and Stadnicki families, and in 1593 it was purchased by Sebastian Lubomirski who requested Emperor Rudolf II to be granted the title of the Count of Wiśnicz. During the heyday of the Wiśnicz complex, its military garrison numbered 650 people (including 200 dragoons and 400 Hungarian infantrymen) and 80 cannons. The castle dungeons made a very harsh prison for captured bandits (e.g. the famous leader of the highwaymen of the Beskidy Mountains, Procpak). During the Polish-Swedish War, Lubomirski supported the king but surrendered the castle to the Swedes trying to save his residence from demolition. Having taken the castle, the Swedes used it to control the entire upland area. However, before their departure, they looted the castle and, reportedly, needed as many as 150 carriages to carry the plunder. The castle never regained its former glory despite the efforts of successive heirs. In October 1707, during the Great Northern War, the building was a retreat for troops commanded by Gen. Rybiński who sent them out to control the region of Kraków and Sandomierz. Wiśnicz suffered a lot during the Bar Confederation. The complex was held by the Lubomirskis until the mid-18th century when it went into the hands of the Sanguszkos and next of the Potockis and Zamoyskis. It lost its function of a lord’s seat already in 1780. After a fire in 1831, the castle was abandoned and began to fall into disrepair. It was saved from the total devastation by the organization Lubomirski Family Union which re-purchased their former seat in 1901 and undertook renovation works. The works were supervised by Adolf Szyszko-Bohusz until 1928. The castle remained the Lubomirskis’ property until nationalization and the land reform in the years 1945-1946. Thorough reconstruction and restoration of the former aristocratic seat began in 1949 under the supervision of Alfred Majewski. Regular restoration works have been carried out regularly since 1970.

Description

The original castle was made up of a quadrangular peripheral wall with a square tower. Almost nothing is known about the earliest history of the castle as any traces of the then structure were mostly destroyed during subsequent transformations. The researchers are of the opinion that the seat of the Kmitas consisted of a rectangular line of defensive walls, approx. 30 m by 50 m, built of the local sandstone, and of a square tower built of the same material and located in the south-east corner. The remaining buildings were wooden. The castle was protected from the south-east by a moat guarded by a rampart, and from the north by a semicircular palisade connecting both ends of the rampart. As a result of successive conversions by the Kmita family, ca. 1500 the residence began to resemble a four-wing palace with a courtyard and three towers at the corners. Besides the earth and stone fortifications, there were two gatehouses raised at both ends of the rampart and offering an additional defensive capacity. General conversion of the complex into the Renaissance style was conducted after 1516 by the most prominent representative of the family Piotr Kmita. All residential wings were raised by one floor. To the south wing of the castle, a large outbuilding was added, the so-called Kmitówka. Also the defensive system was upgraded. The former west gatehouse was transformed into a donjon equipped with crenels and cannon stations. In place of the fence along the north side of the yard, a powerful curtain wall was raised. The castle defence was also strengthened thanks to the artillery tower, adjacent to the north-west corner of the castle, soon replaced by the so-called Bona’s tower. In the final period of extension, Piotr Kmita erected the so-called “ear” bastion in front of the gatehouse, thus enabling an effective defence of the access road to the castle and of the whole Renaissance fortification. The castle was rebuilt thoroughly in the 2nd half of the 16th century and in the early 17th century by Stanisław, Sebastian’s son. The defensive mansion got its final shape after the development project held by Stanisław Lubomirski between 1615 and 1621. He surrounded the castle with bastion fortifications on a pentagonal plan, thus turning Wiśnicz into one of the most powerful aristocratic strongholds in Poland. Maciej Trapola designed the pentagonal bastions in the new Italian style built in the years 1615-1621 accessible via an early Baroque gate. He also designed the defence system of the monastery of the Discalced Carmelites, built south of the castle in the area of the castle garden. In the 17th century, the Lubomirskis’ castle also fulfilled representative functions; that is why the cloisters and the chapel were added (with the stuccowork by J.B. Falconi). The sarcophaguses of the family members can be seen in the crypt under the chapel.

Museum of the Wiśnicz Region Visiting hours from 1 May to 31 October: Monday to Friday 8:00am-6:00pm, Saturdays, Sundays and holidays 10:00am-6:00pm. Off-season visiting hours from 1 November to 30 April: Monday to Friday 8:00am-4:00pm, Saturdays, Sundays and holidays 9:00am-7:00pm.

Compiled by Roman Marcinek, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kraków, 12.08.2014.

Bibliography

  • Bogdanowski J., Trapola, Mieroszewski, Tylman i twierdza wiśnicka, Spraw. PAN, t. XVIII/1, Kraków 1975
  • Cetera J., Nowe odkrycia na zamku w Wiśniczu, (w:) Badania archeologiczne w województwie tarnowskim w 1990 r., Tarnów 1995.
  • Dworaczyński E., Zamek Kmitów w Wiśniczu w świetle źródeł archeologicznych, (w:) Badania archeologiczne Pracowni Konserwacji Zabytków. Studia i Materiały, Warszawa 1988.
  • Kajzer L., Kołodziejski S., Salm L., Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Warszawa 2001.
  • Majewski A., Zamek w Wiśniczu, Nowy Wiśnicz 1992.
  • Małkowska-Holcerowa T., Główne etapy historii zamku w Wiśniczu Nowym, Spraw. PAN, t. XVIII/1, Kraków 1975.
  • Małkowska-Holcerowa T., Holcer Z., Wczesnobarokowa rezydencja Lubomirskich w Wiśniczu, Spraw. PAN, t. XVIII/1, Kraków 1975.
  • Wójcik-Łużycki A., Problemy konserwatorskie zamku w Wiśniczu, „Wiadomości Konserwatorskie”, 13/2003.

transport time to the next site

1 min

dworek Koryznówka
Stary Wiśnicz

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

2 min

miasto
Nowy Wiśnicz

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

2 min

cmentarz żydowski
Nowy Wiśnicz

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

12 min

zabytkowy zespół staromiejski
Lipnica Murowana

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

2 min

kościół parafialny pw. św. Andrzeja Apostoła
Lipnica Murowana

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

3 min

Cemetery Church of St Leonard
Lipnica Dolna

one hour

transport time to the next site

9 min

kościół parafialny pw. św. Mikołaja
Tymowa

15 minuts

cmentarz wojenny nr 298 z I wojny światowej
Tymowa

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

7 min

miasto
Czchów

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

2 min

Castle ruins
Czchów

30 minutes

Preserved relics of a castle of an upland type, whose main section was constituted by a free-standing, cylindrical tower.

History

The castle relics are located on the hill called Baszta, situated in the southern part of the town, on the left bank of the river Dunajec. The fortified structure was erected at the end of a rocky promontory separated from the auxiliary facilities by a deep depression, probably a moat cut in rock. The visible castle relics have been preserved in the form of a durable ruin. The main section of the fortified complex is constituted by a cylindrical tower erected from well-worked sandstones. Its upper section, constituted by an upward extension from the more recent times, is octagonal in shape. In addition, the peripheral walls were recreated, running along the hill edge, with a fortified gate tower adjoining them from the north. Also relics of the walls of residential buildings, adjoining the peripheral walls, are exhibited.

Research results show that the castle was built at the turn of the 13th and 14th century, and was probably founded by Wenceslaus II. The earliest reference of the castle originates from 1356, and mentions burgrabia (“burgrave”) of Czchów, Imram. The stronghold certainly protected the customs chamber located here. In addition to military functions, the castle was also used as an administration and judicial centre. It is very probably that monarch stayed in the castle, as their presence in Czchów is certified by written soures. In the end of the 14th century, the castle and town was leased to the family of Melsztyński who remained the owners until the early 16th century. In 1527, Seweryn Boner became the lessee of Czchów, and in 1563, the town and castle were taken over by Anna Sieniawska, wife of Spytko Jordan from Zakliczyn. It is very probable that already in the 16th century the fortified complex ceased to be used as such, as the survey from 1564 does not mention it.

Description

In the light of results of archaeological and architectural research, the oldest element of the castle, dated back to the turn of the 13th and 14th century, was the cylindrical tower built in the south-western part of the promontory plateau. Its diameter at the level of foundation is 12.5 m, and it was 20 m high before it was extended upwards. The free-standing tower was probably circumscribed by a wooden fence. At the second stage of construction, which took place in the 14th century, four ells (2.4 m) thick peripheral walls were built, running along the edges of the hill and drawing an elongated polygon with its outline. The entrance to the castle led from the north-west through the gate gorge or a small fortified tower, adjoining the peripheral walls. As part of the third stage, which also dates back to the 14th century, the single-bay house partitioned into two rooms, with basements was built, which filled the north-eastern curtain wall of the castle. From the south it was adjoined by a hallway built on a rectangular floor plan, probably also used as a staircase. Entrance to the basement section led from the yard through a Gothic stone portal, discovered during research. At the next stage, dating back to the 15th century, the entryway to the castle was converted - a fortified gate tower was erected, using the elements of the former structure. At the turn of the 15th and 16th century, an elongated wing with stone floor at the ground floor level was added to the residential building from the south. In addition, a small annex was built by the tower, whose walls adjoined the internal face of the peripheral walls. It is not known when the tower was extended upwards by the octagonal section. This top storey probably featured embrasures whose traces were discovered during architectural research.

The site is accessible all year round.

compiled by Stanisław Kołodziejski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Krakow, 25.10.2014.

Bibliography

  • Kajzer L., Kołodziejski S., Salm J, Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Warszawa 2001, s. s. 137-138.
  • Szpunar A., Zamek w Czchowie, pow. Brzeski, woj. małopolskie, [w:] Polonia Minor Medii Aevi. Studia ofiarowane Panu Profesorowi Andrzejowi Żakiemu w osiemdziesiątą rocznicę urodzin. pod red. Z. Woźniaka i J. Garncarskiego, Kraków-Krosno 2003, s. 497-515.
  • Szpunar A., Zamek w Czchowie pow. brzeski, woj. małopolskie, „Rocznik Tarnowski”, 2003/2004/9, s. 5-28.
  • Szpunar A., Zamek w Czchowie, stan badań i źródeł archeologicznych oraz próba odtworzenia wyglądu budowli, [w:] Późne średniowiecze w Karpatach polskich, Krosno 2007, s. 269-286.
  • Szpunar A., Glinianowicz M., Uzbrojenie późnośredniowieczne z zamku w Czchowie, woj. małopolskie, „Acta Militaria Mediaevalia”, t. II, 2006 s. 137-188.

transport time to the next site

2 min

kościół parafialny pw. Narodzenia Najświętszej Marii Panny
Czchów

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

18 min

zespół pałacowo-parkowy
Brzesko

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

46 min

Historic Centre of Cracow
Kraków

The Historic Centre of Kraków features a preserved urban layout which is unique on a European scale, incorporating surviving elements which are the heritage of many different cultures and nations and which represent all the known architectural styles, from the Romanesque style to Modernism. Notable features include the remnants of medieval defensive walls as well as numerous places of worship, monasteries, public buildings, urban palaces and tenement houses of the bourgeoisie, many of which are eminent designs created by renowned architects. Many of the buildings in question bear the signs of numerous redesigns, forming the material evidence of the city’s history and documenting the changing trends in the history of art. More importantly, all these structures coexist in a harmonious manner, creating single urban organism.

The entry on the World Heritage List encompasses three settlement complexes: the Wawel Hill, the medieval chartered city of Kraków and the town of Kazimierz (including the suburb of Stradom). The Wawel Hill, topped with the Royal Castle and the Cathedral, has served as the seat of the Polish kings and as their necropolis. It is a place of immense importance for the Polish history and national identity as well as for the history of both medieval and early modern Europe, due to the family connections of the monarchs who reigned here and the political events that have taken place throughout the ages. Both Kraków and Kazimierz have been chartered according to the Magdeburg rights back in the Middle Ages. Located in a spot where the western and eastern cultural influences converged, Kraków remained an important centre for culture and crafts as well as a crucial administrative, commercial and academic hub, with the Jagiellonian University in Kraków being one of the oldest universities in Europe and an educational institution of international repute. With its numerous historical monuments linked with the Jewish culture and religion, Kazimierz is a living proof of the multiculturalism of the city of Kraków.

The Historic Centre of Kraków is notable for the high degree of authenticity of its topographical layout as well as the preserved medieval street plan. The historical landmarks of the Wawel Hill, the Town Hall Tower and numerous churches continue to dominate the city skyline. An outstanding feature of the city is the state of preservation of its numerous and highly valuable historical monuments, many of which still boast their original fittings. Another notable feature is that not only is the material heritage of the city well cared for, but also that efforts are being made to preserve the customs and traditions which define the character of the city, setting it apart from other similar centres.

The Historic Centre of Kraków was included on the World Heritage List in 1978 during the 2nd session of the World Heritage Committee in Washington (dec. CONF 010 VIII.38).

Entry made on the basis of criterion IV:

Criterion (IV):

Kraków is an urban architectural ensemble of outstanding quality, in terms of both its townscape and its individual monuments. The historic centre of the town admirably illustrates the process of continuous urban growth from the Middle Ages to the present day.

The property is accessible to visitors.

Compiled on the basis of materials of the National Heritage Board of Poland, 30-11-2015

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