Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Palace complex; currently the International Environmental Education Centre

Iwonicz

photo

The complex consists of a palace, a granary, an orangery and a park and constitutes a representational example of a residential complex in the region. It is distinctive for its universal, elegant body of the palace and the park that bears traces of the former complex.

History

The history of the palace complex in Iwonicz dates back to the mid 15th century. The initial manor house is mentioned in literature of 1445. The property belonged at that time to Morawa, Banesz and Boczko of Iwonicz. Subsequent owners included: Marcin Iwaniecki, Zbigniew Sienieński in the 16th century. Bobola and Witowski families in the 17th century. Stadnicki, Ossoliński and Potocki families in the 18th century. In 1793 the village was bought by Michał Ostaszewski who then sold it to Teofil Załuski six years later. Iwonicz remained in the hands of the Załuski family until mid- 20th century.

Perhaps a still existing granary building, erected in the early 17th century, was another residence of the owners, as it could serve as a manor lord’s house and later, as tradition relays, as an Aryan church. In 1782 it was transformed into a granary by efforts of Józef Ossoliński. A subsequent manor house was erected as a wooden hunting pavilion. It was subject to alterations in 1840 at the initiative of Amelia Załuska, nee Ogińska, wife of Karol Załuski. Most probably, at that time the landscape park was planned on the basis of earlier, 18th-century formal gardens, incorporating the remains of earlier fortifications (ramparts and moats) into the park composition. In the 1st half of the 19th century an orangery was also built.

The preserved palace in Iwonicz was erected in the years 1882-1883 at the initiative of Michał and Helena Załuski, the then owners of the estate. The Załuski family owned Iwonicz until the outbreak of World War II and wrote its name in the history of the region by establishing and acting for the flourishing of the Iwonicz spa and being a pillar of the local community that actively participated in social, political and economic life.

During World War II the building was destroyed by stationing German troops, followed by Russian ones. After the war the property was nationalised. During the 2nd half of the 20th century the palace housed a school, a State Agricultural Farm and a Voivodeship Centre for Agricultural Progress. In the years 1977-1978 the feature was renovated; afterwards, it remained out of use for quite long until it was handed over with the entire complex to the University of Rzeszów. Following a subsequent renovation, the palace has functioned as a conference and training centre of the International Environmental Education Centre of the University of Rzeszów.

Description

The palace complex is located in the northern part of the village, on a relatively flat stretch of land. It is demarcated by roads on three sides: in the north, west and east. In the south it is limited by homestead buildings. A homestead of the local parish church adjoins to the complex in the southern part of the eastern border.

A Classicist palace was erected in the central part of the complex, on an elongated rectangular floor plan, with a rectangular body diversified by side avant-corps and a terrace with glass roofing between them in the north, a two-storey colonnaded portico with polygonal bay windows acting as frames in the south, as well as porticos with terraces on the first floor in the east and west. The palace is covered with a hip roof, with mansards over avant-corps, and a gable roof over the portico. The entire body is made of brick, plastered on both sides; the roofs are clad with interlocking sheet.

The symmetric front façade in the south has eight axes and rhythmically arranged rows of windows on two storeys. Its axis is accentuated by a two-storey, four-column portico crowned with a triangular abutment with a cartouche including Junosza and Strzemię coats of arms, as well as bay windows along extreme axes, covered by cupolas. The symmetric north façade has nine axes with two extreme, two-axis avant-corps, between which a terrace with a glass roof was positioned; the symmetric east façade has three axes and a terrace (porch) resting atop four columns; the symmetric west façade has five axes and also includes a terrace (porch) resting on four columns. Horizontal articulation of the building is underlined by a plinth crowned with a cornice, an inter-storey cornice and a pronounced crowning cornice as well as faux rustication on the ground floor and rustication-imitating strips in plasterwork on the second storey. Windows on all façades are articulated by profiled, chambranle surrounds, panels under windows and window headers in the form of overhead cornices on the ground floor and abutments on the second storey. The palace’s layout with two longitudinal bays and a vestibule with stairs along the axis has been preserved.

The manor granary (Aryan church) is located in the south-western corner of the complex. It was erected on a rectangular floor plan, as a single-space building covered with a barrel vault with lunettes, partitioned into two bays in 1782. Currently, the feature has a reinforced concrete ceiling resting on reinforced concrete pillars. Its compact, cuboidal body is covered with a tall hip roof. The building is made of stone, while the roof is clad with wood shingles. The façades were pierced by small rectangular windows; a stone, chambranle portal with a transom light and a keystone draws particular attention.

The orangery is located on the southern edge of the park. This building was set on a rectangular floor plan with a semi-circular part in the north. It has one storey with a centrally positioned chimney and is covered with a three-sloped roof over auxiliary rooms and a glass fan roofing of the orangery itself. The building was made of brick and the roof was clad with interlocking sheet. Missing decorative elements make the former orangery, particularly when seen from the north, a feature with a nearly contemporary style.

The palace park was planned on the basis of a former landscape complex from the 18th century and remains of an old fortalice. Several ponds, including relics of former moats, and a vast pond with an island have survived in the area. The park also includes numerous monumental trees, such as pedunculate oak, small-leaved and large-leaved lime, beech and maple.

The park is unavailable to visitors, while the palace is open only occasionally. It houses the International Environmental Education Centre of the University of Rzeszów.

compiled by Mieczysław Kuś, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 12-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Kwilecki A., Załuscy w Iwoniczu, Kórnik 1993
  • Aftanazy R., Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczpospolitej, t.8, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1996, s. 327-334
  • E. Śnieżyńska-Stlotowa, F. Stolot Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, Krosno, Dukla i okolice, Warszawa 1977, s. 34-37
  • Libicki P., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Małopolsce i na Podkarpaciu, Poznań 2012, s. 175-177
  • Polakowski S. Pozostałości założeń dworskich województwa podkarpackiego, Krosno 2012, s. 361-362
  • J. Piórecki, Zabytkowe ogrody i parki województwa krośnieńskiego, Bolestraszyce 1998, s. 88-92
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Spichlerz dworski (dwór ariański), oprac.: M. Czuba, 1995, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatury w Krośnie
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Oranżeria, oprac.: J. Kuśnierz, 2007, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatury w Krośnie

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1882-1883
  • Form of protection: heritage-listed monuments
  • Address: Zadwór 1, Iwonicz
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district krośnieński, commune Iwonicz Zdrój - obszar wiejski
  • Copyright owner: National Heritage Board of Poland

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