Palace complex, Zamarte
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The palace complex in Zamarte is positioned at the farthest edge of the northern part of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province. The spatial layout of the park surrounding the palace as well as the nearby monastery complex remains a valuable example of architecture and landscape design from the late 19th century and the early 20th century.

History

The very first mentions of the village of Zamarte (known as Jacobsdorf in German) date back to 1354, when the village remained in the hands of the local knights, answering directly to the Człuchów commandry. In 1433, the owner of the village was A. Trebnic of the Poraj coat of arms. In the 17th century, Zamarte was acquired by Michał Grabowski, who erected the first palace here in the middle of the century. Its subsequent owners were the members of the Żaliński and Graczyński families, while towards the end of the 17th century, the manor came into the hands of the Goetzendorf-Grabowski family of the Zbiśnicz coat of arms. Between the early and the mid-19th century, the owners of the manor changed quite frequently and included the Osten-Sacken and Livonius families. In the mid-19th century, the widowed wife of the last among the members of the Livonius family to have owned the manor has decided to sell it to Franz von Parpart, who erected the existing Baroque Revival palace in 1883. Following a devastating fire in 1913, the palace was redesigned, with the successive renovation and construction works imbuing its appearance with numerous features typical of the eclectic style. During the interwar period, the building and the surrounding manor remained in the hands of Herbert von Parpart. In 1945 the manor complex was taken over by the State Treasury and was subsequently converted into an office building of the local State Agricultural Holding (PGR) in 1954. Until the year 1966, the palace served as the Institute for Plant Cultivation and Acclimatisation in Zamarte, having its registered office in Radzików. After 1966, it became the seat of the Bonin Institute of Potato Cultivation. From 1968 onwards, the edifice has served as the Training Centre for Seed Potato Cultivation. In 1971, the palace underwent a comprehensive restoration. In years 1995-1996, a further series of renovation works was conducted to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Institute for Plant Cultivation and Acclimatisation (IHAR). In 1997, the palace became the property of the Potato Cultivation Experimental Centre in Zamarte and was shortly renamed as the Radzików Institute for Plant Cultivation and Acclimatisation. In the early months of the year 2000, it became the registered office of the company known as the Zamarte Potato Cultivation Company (IHAR Group).

Description

The palace in Zamarte is situated about 300 metres east of the road leading from Kamień Krajeński to Sępólno, north of the road towards Jerzmionki. A large park stretches west of the palace, its northern section reaching all the way to the Zamarte lake. The manor farm buildings are located east of the palace. The palace itself is a brick building with a basement designed on a rectangular floor plan, its walls covered with plaster. Its foundations and parts of the basement walls were constructed using both field stones and brick. All the ceilings inside the palace are made of wood, with the wooden beams concealed beneath a false ceiling. The wind porch accessible through the main entrance features a barrel vault. The basement chambers all feature segmental vaults, with the exception of the middle chamber where a barrel vault is used instead.

The palace, designed on an elongated rectangular floor plan, features a number of avant-corps as well as a two-storey northern wing and a single-storey southern annex, both likewise designed on a rectangular floor plan. The interiors follow a two-bay layout. Entrances preceded by stairs are positioned on the middle axis of each avant-corps. Additional entrances, likewise preceded by stairs, are present in both the southern and the northern façades.

The two-storey main body of the palace is compact in shape, positioned on a low socle, its dominant stylistic feature being the pair of three-storey avant-corps on the eastern and western sides of the structure. The height of the mansard roof covering the palace equals to one-third of that of the main body itself. The northern wing is a two-storey structure, while the southern outbuilding has a single storey only. The western avant-corps is preceded by a single-storey porch. A basement is present underneath the palace.

The building is situated in the north-eastern part of the village, on the northern side of the Zamarte lake, on a small hill. The rectangular main body is arranged along the north-south axis. The palace is a free-standing structure surrounded by a landscape park stretching towards the north, west and south. The driveway leading towards the palace is located on the eastern side thereof, with the former manor farm present in its immediate vicinity. The edifice is made of brick, its walls covered with plaster. It is a two-storey structure with three-storey eastern and western avant-corps topped with segment-headed gables. The main entrance is preceded by a fan-shaped flight of steps. The western façade faces the park and features a single-storey brick porch with a terrace on top; a third-storey balcony rises above the terrace. The porch is preceded by stairs leading in the general direction of the park. The southern façade is adjoined by a single-storey brick porch covered with a three-sided roof. The main body of the palace is covered by a mansard roof with dormers. The façades are partitioned with rusticated lesenes, the spaces between them occupied by rectangular windows. The front (eastern) façade follows a fourteen-axial layout and features a central avant-corps. The main entrance positioned on the middle axis of the avant-corps is framed with a concave portal topped with a semi-circular arch and preceded by stairs fanning out towards the yard. The stairs and the small terrace preceding the entrance are circumscribed with a balustrade with brick posts, their surface covered with plaster. The pediment crowning the avant-corps is separated from the rest of the façade by a cornice supported by a dentil frieze. The avant-corps façade is adorned with rustication reaching to about the middle of its height. A pair of cartouches framed with foliate decorations, positioned at the corners of the façade, can be seen beneath the top cornice. The façade corners themselves are adorned with rustication in the form of faux quoins. The main avant-corps forms the primary axis of the front façade. Both the northern and southern sections of the eastern façade feature pronounced vertical articulation in the form of rusticated pilasters. Rectangular windows framed with profiled surrounds can be seen between the pilasters. A broad cornice with a dentil frieze can be seen above the first-floor windows. The eastern façade of the two-storey northern wing of the palace, lower than its main body, follows a two-axial layout and is covered with a flat roof. The entire surface of its walls is adorned with decorative rustication. The eastern façade of the single-storey southern annex follows a five-axial layout and features an entrance positioned on its middle axis. The annex is covered with a three-sided roof which obscures parts of the main body façade. The upper section of the southern façade of the main body takes the form of a wall dormer topped with a semi-circular gable incorporating a decorative cartouche in its centre. The corners of both the southern annex and the main body are rusticated. The western façade of the palace follows a nine-axial layout with a central avant-corps, following the same pattern as the eastern façade. The main entrance leading into the palace itself is positioned at the ground-floor level, on the middle axis of the avant-corps. A flight of seven steps is positioned on the axis of the entrance, featuring a bottom platform with additional flights of steps on both sides. The stairs and the platform feature a balustrade with brick posts, their surface covered with plaster. Each side of the balustrade consists of three sections.

The entrance is preceded by a porch with a flat roof doubling as a terrace accessible from the first-floor rooms on the western side of the palace. As mentioned before, a T-shaped exterior stairway is positioned on the axis of the entrance. The two side flights of steps are framed with a balustrade with profiled, cubiform brick posts surmounted by decorative obelisks. A small balcony supported by a pair of corbels projects from the wall beneath the third storey of the avant-corps. The overall decorative scheme of the western façade is carried over from its eastern counterpart. The side walls of the porch (the northern and the southern wall) are punctuated by a pair of windows on each side, separated by a rectangular pillar. The southern section of the western façade (southern wall of the eastern annex) is adjoined by a small, brick storage lean-to covered by a shed roof and featuring a pair of narrow, slit-like windows. The northern façade (i.e. the wall of the northern wing, covered with a flat roof) follows a five-axial layout and is adorned with decorative rustication from the bottom to the top.

The interiors of the palace follow a two-bay layout. The main entrance is positioned on the middle axis of the avant-corps and leads into a wind porch positioned in the front suite of rooms, its northern and southern walls pierced with doorways facilitating access into a pair of small utility rooms. Directly ahead of the entrance door, across the wind porch, there is a double swing door leading into the large vestibule with a double staircase leading from the ground floor to the first floor - which features a layout similar to that of the ground floor below, with an additional staircase leading into the garret. On the ground floor level, a double door positioned directly ahead of the main entrance (in the eastern wall of the vestibule) allows visitors to proceed into the largest room on this level, originally designed as a drawing room. The drawing room ceiling is adorned with geometric stucco decorations. At the end of the drawing room there is a door leading out into the western terrace, down the stairs and into the park beyond. Another double door in the southern wall of the vestibule lead into a narrow hallway; originally, the southern section of the palace featured four rooms arranged in an enfilade layout.

Presently however, the rooms on the western and eastern sides of the hallway are divided by additional walls, added in the course of the renovation works conducted in 1945. The southern part of the hallway contains a passage leading into the single-storey southern annex. The southern section of the palace contains a total of eight rooms divided by a central hallway leading into the single-storey annex. Originally, both the southern and the northern suite of rooms consisted of three rooms arranged in an enfilade layout. A basement level is present beneath the entire footprint of the palace. An entrance into the basement level is located on the eastern side, on the ground floor level of the northern wing. The cellars feature segmental vaults, with the sole exception of the central chamber in the rear suite, which features a barrel vault. The redesigned basement beneath the northern part of the palace feature flat ceilings.

Manor farm complex

The former manor farm complex is situated east of the palace; the complex includes a two-storey, brick distillery building from 1885, its walls covered with plaster; the southern façade of the distillery is adjoined by a tall, brick chimney. South of the distillery lies the single-storey former stable (1884), currently serving as a granary. The buildings are covered with gable roofs and are protected by an inscription into the register of monuments. The complex also includes a storage building from 1884, currently used as a garage (converted in 1930) as well as four houses for the servants and farm-hands (two semi-detached houses for two families from the late 19th century and two semi-detached houses for four families, dating back to the early 20th century); these are accompanied by a single additional house as well as a utility building from 1910.

The park

The origins of the landscape park are most likely linked to the construction of the very first palace to be erected here, constructed by Michał Grabowski in the mid-17th century. According to the trends prevailing in the early 19th century, the existing natural surroundings and locations were typically used as the basis for the establishment, transformation or development of a new landscape park; the same principles also applied in the present case. The terraced layout of the sloping terrain which falls away towards the north, in the direction of the Zamarte lake, created perfect conditions for this concept to be implemented. The park surrounds the palace from almost all sides, stretching towards the south-east, south, west and north. The largest section of the park is the area located west of the palace, reaching all the way to the national road no. 25, with the northern boundary of the park running alongside the shores of the Zamarte lake. Today, the total surface of the park amounts to 2.41 hectares; the park features numerous tree species, with most of the old growth concentrated around the edges of the site. The dominant tree species present in the park are warty birch, common maple, pedunculate oak, hornbeam, small-leaved lime, spruce and larch. Remnants of the alley leading to a small pond can be seen on the axis of the western façade of the palace. The landscape park also features the remnants of an irregular network of walking paths, with the larger alley leading away from the western façade and towards the lake still clearly discernible. The park features a number of purpose-designed sections of low greenery and lawns which bring out the undulating shape of the underlying terrain; these are particularly visible from the direction of the southern façade.

The monument is open to visitors. Viewing of the church is only possible by prior telephone appointment.

compiled by Krzysztof Bartowski, Historical Monument and National Heritage Documentation and Popularisation Department of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Cultural Centre in Bydgoszcz, 08-12-2014 - 19-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet, Pałac. Zamarte, prepared by Bartowski K., 2000, Archive of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments in Bydgoszcz; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Zabytki architektury i budownictwa w Polsce, Województwo bydgoskie, 5 part 2, Warsaw 1997, pp. 166-167.
  • Skaza L., Szlakiem zabytków, (in:) “Powiatowe ABC” no. 10/1999, Sępólno Krajeńskie 1999.
  • Parucka K., Raczyńska-Mąkowska, Katalog zabytków województwa bydgoskiego, Bydgoszcz 1997, p. 98.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1883 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Parkowa 1, Zamarte
  • Location: Voivodeship kujawsko-pomorskie, district sępoleński, commune Kamień Krajeński - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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