Coupled long-range artillery battery X/B2 Orzechowce, Ujkowice
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Coupled long-range artillery battery X/B2 Orzechowce

Ujkowice

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Preserved artillery battery X/B2 is of high scientific value as a defensive masterpiece built in a group system, coupled with main armoured fort GHW X. It was involved in combat during the first and third siege in 1914 and 1915. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

The artillery battery was built in 1886-1887, at the same time as two-rampart main artillery fort GHW X "Orzechowce". It does not have a separate name on the fortress map Festung-Umgebungs-Plan von Przemyśl. In 1897-1900, during the fort modernisation, the ramparts surrounding the battery and the rampart connecting it to fort GHW X were altered by flattening the slope. In 1901, the battery was armed with four 15 cm cannons on tall fort trailers. A small battery on the connecting rampart was armed with two 8 cm M.75 field guns. In 1909, the armament of the small battery was changed to two 9 cm M.75/96 field guns. The purpose of the battery was control the hills in the region of Batycze and to prevent the opponent's batteries being built there. The "small battery" was designed to strengthen the defence of the inter-field between forts GHW X and GZW Xa. During the first siege of the fortress (18 September - 9 October 1914), the batteries supported the defence of neighbouring fort XIa “Cegielnia” attacked by Russian infantry and artillery. Before surrendering of the fortress during the second siege (9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) the cannons had been destroyed. During the third siege (29 May - 4 June 1915), after being shelled with heavy artillery, the batteries were taken over by the 11th Bavarian Infantry Division. In 1920-1930, emergency bunkers were demolished.

Description

Battery X/B2 is a defensive long-range battery coupled with fort GHW (Gürtelhauptwerk) X "Orzechowce", erected as part of the group fort system. The battery is located south-east of fort X, at the north-western end of the village of Żurawica, about 500 m west of the road from Przemyśl to Pruchnik. The boundary between the village of Ujkowice and Żurawica and the communes of Przemyśl and Żurawica separates battery X/B2 from the connecting rampart, "small battery", and fort X.

The area of the battery along with the rampart connecting it to the fort, measured within the boundaries of the former fort plots, is approximately 2.8 ha.

The battery was built on a rectangular floor plan. To the north and east, the structure is surrounded by a dry moat with a flattened slope. The preserved structures include a rampart with heavy cannon posts separated by traverses. On the side of the gorge and on both sides, the battery is closed off by an earthen rampart with a narrow moat (from the gorge side) and two passages on the site formerly occupied by non-existent gates: in the gorge and in the western flank, on the side of the "small battery". The area of the battery is overgrown with a forest in the western part and self-sown plants.

The left western flank of the battery is adjoined by a rampart with a dry moat with a flattened slope. The initial section of the rampart runs in a westerly direction, the next sections are bent towards the north-west and Fort GHW X. The "small battery" is located directly behind the point where the direction is changed. These are two field gun emplacements separated a traverse. Other two traverses separate fire posts from the remaining sections of the rampart. The "small battery", connecting rampart and moat are overgrown with trees, mostly black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) trees, self-sown plants grown from trees that formerly were the front mask of the rampart.

The site is open to visitors. The fortification is part of the black fortress trail as well as the cycling path which runs between the various forts that formed the Fortress of Przemyśl.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 5-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warsaw - Cracow 1996.
  • Bogdanowski J. Twierdza Przemyśl, [in:]Teka konserwatorska Polska południowo-wschodnia, vol. 4, Rzeszów 1991.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, [in:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, 2nd Edition, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Forstner F., Twierdza Przemyśl, translated by Bańbor J., Warsaw 2000.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, [in:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, 2nd Edition, Rzeszów 1999.

General information

  • Type: defensive architecture
  • Chronology: 1886-1887
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Ujkowice
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district przemyski, commune Przemyśl
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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