Palace complex, Turew
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The palace in Turew is an interesting example of a medium-scale residence from the 18th century, reflecting the Baroque principles of axial alignment and symmetry in spatial design and layout. Situated between the courtyard and the garden, it combines representative and utilitarian functions. It was the residence of Dezydery Chłapowski, an officer who fought in the Napoleonic Wars, and also general who participated in the November Uprising, farmer who studied in England and social benefactor who organised vocational training for young farmers in Turew. An initiator of in-the-field planting.

History

The first recorded mention of the church dates back to 1395. In the second half of the 17th century, it was owned by Hieronim Pogorzelski, Wacław Zaleski and Konstanty Opaliński. In 1730, Władysław Radomicki sold Turew to Ludwik Chłapowski, and it remained property of the Chłapowski family until 1939. Around 1760, Stanisław Chłapowski carried out works whose aim was to convert the former wooden manor house into a palace. After 1780, Józef Chłapowski had the porch before the front façade modified. After the Napoleonic Wars, Turew was bought from Józef’s father by General Dezydery Chłapowski, who had the palace modified in the neo-Gothic style in the years 1820-30, which is when a tower was added to the eastern avant-corps. Subsequently, in the years 1846-1847, a neo-Gothic palace chapel was built. After the fire which broke out at the palace in 1880, Zygmunt Chłapowski renovated it in the years 1908-1909, with the participation of an architect from Poznań, Stanisław Borecki. In 1951, Turew became the seat of the Department of Agricultural Biology of the Institute of Ecology at the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Description

The residential complex in Turew is located in the north-western part of the village, to the east of the route from Czempiń to Krzywiń. It consists of a palace with a chapel, an outbuilding and a park. The three-storeyed palace with a representative first storey and a residential attic, built on a rectangular floor plan, has basements under some of its parts. The eleven-axis façade is adorned with a three-axis central avant-corps preceded by a projecting two-storey porch crowned with a pediment with a cartouche containing a coat of arms with Rococo-Classicist framing, and two-axis extreme avant-corps. Before the eastern front avant-corps, there is an annex in the form of a relatively low tower in the neo-Gothic style topped with a battlement. In the garden façade, the central avant-corps is preceded by a balcony supported by pillars and columns, crowned with a neo-Baroque gable. A dominant feature in the central section is the upward extension of the roof with a cupola ceiling. The décor of the interior has been partially preserved. The stucco wall decoration in the drawing room is worth noting; it was was created around 1780 in the style of Louis XVI according to the project of Ignacy Graff. The neoclassical ceiling dates back to 1868. Inside the neighbouring library, the ceiling is adorned with neo-Gothic stucco decorations from the 1820s. The ground floor hall features a plaster copy of the general’s bust, the original of which - currently at the National Museum in Poznań - was made of red marble at the beginning of this century by Władysław Marcinkowski.The neo-Gothic palace chapel of the Immaculately Conceived Blessed Virgin Mary, added at the eastern side façade of the residence, is connected thereto through an annex with a gate passage on the ground level. It is a relatively small building with a slender body, built on a rectangular floor plan and covered with a tall dual-pitched roof with stepped gables. The brick façades, not covered with plaster, are reinforced with stepped buttresses and pierced with elongated, pointed-arch window openings. The outbuilding, situated to the north-east of the palace, was erected in the years 1914-1916 using parts of the walls of an older building, likely a former distillery. During the interwar period, it served as a nursery and living quarters of the chauffeur and the cashier. The outbuilding was built of brick on a rectangular floor plan, plastered, had one storey with a residential attic and was covered with a mansard roof. The roof plane features single- and two-axis wall dormers. In the north-eastern corner of the part, there is the gardener’s house. It was built in the early 20th century, front-gabled and covered with a half-hip roof. Around the residence, there is a park spanning approx. 22 ha which was founded in the 18th century. While originally regular, it was transformed into an English landscape garden in the years 1860-1870 by the famous gardener Augustine Denizot, brought in by General Chłapowski. The park is surrounded by a fence. The main entrance gate is situated to the north-west of the palace, recessed in relation to the fence around the park. It was constructed near the end of the 18th century in the Baroque style, while the wicket and gate date back to the 20th century.

Bibliography

  • Barokowe dwory i pałace w Wielkopolsce, Poznań 2006
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, woj. poznańskie, t. V, z. 10, pow. kościański
  • Kasprzak K., Raszka B., Park Krajobrazowy im. Dezyderego Chłapowskiego, Poznań 2007,
  • Krzysztof Morawski, Wspomnienia z Turwi, 1981

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: ok. 1760 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Szkolna 4, Turew
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district kościański, commune Kościan
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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