The “Hoym” Bituminous Coal Mine, currently known as the “Ignacy” Coal Mine, Rybnik
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The “Hoym” Bituminous Coal Mine, currently known as the “Ignacy” Coal Mine

Rybnik

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The existing complex of buildings had originally formed part of the largest bituminous coal mining facility in the Rybnik region. Its spatial layout has changed little from the moment of its construction. Today, the mining facility forms an excellent example of the interaction between man and his environment, bearing testimony to the historic methods of raw materials excavation. The facility is also a representative example of a complex of buildings associated with the mining industry, dating back to the late 19th and early 20th century. Due to the overall integrity of the complex and the completeness of the preserved machinery and equipment, the entire site retains an immense cultural and research value. It also forms part of the local cultural landscape, instantly defined by the towering headframes.

History

The “Ignacy” coal mine was originally founded in 1792, at the initiative of Kerl Georg von Hoym, the Prussian minister for the Silesian province. The first coal extraction took place in 1996, although it was only in 1816 when the entire site was allocated to the company for the purposes of conducting mining activities. In the 1830s, the “Hoym” mining facility was merged with the “Sylvester” coal mine, thus becoming known as the “Hoym Consolidated Mining Facility”. The commissioning of a 44-inch water extraction device in 1840, installed in the first, 46-metre-long “Thurnagel” water shaft was an important step forward for the facility. In October 1956, a railway line leading through Niewiadom was opened, with a direct connection to the mining facility being established two years later. In 1870, the Hoym Consolidated Mining Facility was merged with another coal mining site known as “Laura”. It was only in 1890, however, that Hugo Hohenlohe-Oehringen, the duke of Ujazd (Ujest), acquired the full legal title to the entire mining complex. In 1874, a new shaft known as “Grundmann” was sunk, its total depth reaching 150 metres. During the years that followed, a complex of industrial and office buildings was erected around the “Graf Reden” shaft. In the year 1900, a new shaft building, steel headframe, electrical switching station buildings and winding engine hall were erected around the disused “Oppurg” shaft. Two years later, a new, steam-powered winding engine called “Wilhelmshütte’’ was assembled. As large coal mining monopolies began to expand even further, the relatively small Consolidated Hoym-Laura Mining Facility was incorporated into the Czerniec (Schwarzau) Coal Mining Association. It was during that period that a new boiler house was erected near the “Opperung” shaft, equipped with three water-tube boilers and an 80-metre chimney. In 1923, the “Grundmann” shaft received a new pit railway based on the so-called endless chain system was constructed alongside the “Grundmann” shaft. A new boiler house was also erected nearby, featuring a chimney with a total height of 90 metres. After Poland regained its independence, the new government decided to move away from the German nomenclature used throughout the mining facility, and so, in 1936, the facility became the “Ignacy” coal mine, named after the erstwhile president of the Republic of Poland, while the “Grundmann”, “Vera” and “Oppurg” shafts were renamed as “Kościuszko”, “Weronika” and “Głowacki”. The subsequent extension and alteration works involved the establishment of a narrow-gauge railway line in 1937, connecting the “Kościuszko” and “Głowacki” mining shafts, the opening of a new, diagonal hoist, the construction of a transformer station, air compressor station, cooling tower, mechanical workshop and a lamp room. In January 1968, by disposition of the Ministry of Mining and Energy, the “Ignacy” coal mine was merged with the neighbouring “Rydułtowy” bituminous coal mining facility due to the gradual depletion of the coal deposits beneath the “Ignacy” mine. The works performed during the period in question involved mostly the redesigning the existing tunnels, filling in the disused mining shafts and reducing the mining departments. Towards the end of the 1990s, the process of demolition of further structures has begun, including the “Marian” shaft building and the old bathhouse.

Description

The buildings forming part of the historic “Ignacy” coal mine form a complex situated in the Niewiadom district, in the south-western part of Rybnik, on Mościckiego street. The preserved buildings form a unique complex of the oldest bituminous coal mining facility in the Rybnik region, with very few changes made to their overall appearance from the moment of their construction. The constituent parts of the complex are as follows:

1. The shaft-top building of the “Głowacki” shaft (formerly known as the “Opperung” shaft), accompanied by a headframe from 1892, initially conceived as a free-standing headframe structure. The building is inextricably linked to the steel headframe from 1902. Designed on a square floor plan, the two-storey building covered with a gable roof takes the form of a cuboid tower-like structure.

2. The winding engine building of the “Głowacki” shaft from 1892, containing a steam-driven winding engine from the year 1900. The machinery hall building is a single-storey brick structure designed on a rectangular floor plan, covered with a gable roof. The Wilhelmshutte winding engine, manufactured in the year 1900, is powered by a two-cylinder reciprocating piston high-pressure steam engine.

3. The shaft-top building of the “Kościuszko” shaft (formerly known as the “Grundmann” shaft) from 1921, accompanied by a headframe; designed on a roughly rectangular plan, the building features a symmetrical silhouette consisting of a single-storey and a two-storey section. The riveted steel headframe with a single diagonal support was erected during the same year.

4. The winding engine house of the “Kościuszko” shaft from 1920, containing the steam-driven winding engine - a single-storey building with a basement, erected on a rectangular floor plan and covered with a gable roof. The two-cylinder reciprocating piston high-pressure steam engine was manufactured in 1920 at the Linke Hoffmann Werke Breslau factory.

5. The compressor building (formerly serving as the power station), located in the vicinity of the “Głowacki” shaft engine house, erected on a roughly rectangular floor plan and featuring a decorative façade lined with ceramic brick and adorned with lesenes and a dentilled cornice. Inside, the building houses the original piston compressor from 1923, manufactured by the Linke Hoffmann Werke Breslau company, as well as the piston compressor from 1944 manufactured by Ingersoll Rand from Canada.

The buildings forming part of the complex are made predominantly of brick. The only exception is the “Kościuszko” shaft building featuring a steel frame with brick infills. Most of the buildings are covered with flattened gable roofs clad with roofing felt, based on a steel roof truss. The flooring inside the buildings is made of ceramic tiles, terrazzo or cement. The two surviving headframes - the “Kościuszko” and the “Głowacki” headframe - are both steel structures with a single diagonal support.

The building is open to visitors all year round and can be viewed upon prior telephone appointment.

compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 25-06-2014.

Bibliography

  • Markiewka E., Kalendarium Kopalni ,,Ignacy’’ (Hoym) 1792-1967, with supplements to 2008, Rybnik 2009, pp. 1-26.
  • Smołka M. Z., Dziele kopalni ,,Ignacy’’ (,,Hoym’’) 1792-2001, Katowice 2001, pp. 33-138.
  • Adamczyk A., Kopalnia Węgla Kamiennego Hoym Ignacy 1792-1967-2011, Warsaw 2011.
  • Szlak zabytków techniki województwa śląskiego, Bożek G. (ed.), Katowice 2006, pp. 67-68.

General information

  • Type: mine
  • Chronology: XIX/XX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Mościckiego , Rybnik
  • Location: Voivodeship śląskie, district Rybnik, commune Rybnik
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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