The tuberculosis sanatorium complex, Rudka-Sanatorium
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The tuberculosis sanatorium complex

Rudka-Sanatorium

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The tuberculosis sanatorium complex in Rudka has been preserved intact to a large extent. It represents a spatial composition along the north-south axis. It is highlighted by the main building with lounges. It is a significant element of the material culture, related to the history of health resorts in Poland. The feature presents national values.

History

In the early 20th century Rev. Stanisław Lubomirski relinquished Rudka village with adjacent land for the construction of the Tuberculosis Sanatorium. The Sanatorium Construction Committee was designated in 1899 at the Warsaw Hygienic Association upon the initiative of Dr Teodor Dunin, who became the honorary chair of the Committee. Having collected 80 thousand rubles and obtained 20 ha of land from rev. Lubomirski, in 1902 the construction of the institute began to the plans prepared by a Warsaw-based builder, Stanisław Lilpop. The construction was supervised by Lilpop and Jankowski. A sanatorium with 120 beds was planned. The ceremonial opening of the first, eastern wing took place on 29 November 1908. Apart from the eastern wing, a kitchen wing, a lounge and a boiler room were completed. The sanatorium had its own connection with Mrozy by means of a horsecar. In years 1912-1913 another phase of expansion of the feature took place. A house for a director was built and the construction of the western wing of the main building began. World War I interrupted the works; they were resumed in 1927. At that time, the residential and utility facilities were expanded. Supervision over the sanatorium was exercised by the president of the sanatorium, a Warsaw-based manufacturer Emil Gerlach (1920-1941), followed by Prof. Ignacy Raduszewski and Dr Marcin Kasprzak. During World War II the sanatorium also served as a military hospital. In May 1945 the sanatorium was reopened, by considerate help of UNRRA. After 1945 the basements were expanded, a power station, garages and a water treatment plant as well as new residential buildings for staff were built and the roads obtained a hard surface. On 6 May 1960 the sanatorium was taken over by the state.

Description

The Tuberculosis Sanatorium Complex, currently a Teodor Dunin Independent Complex of Health Care Facilities in Rudka, is located on the edge of a forest complex in the group of forests of Bernatowicz reserve, south-east of Rudka village. The area of the complex approximates that of a trapeze. Arable land belonging to Wola Rafałowska and Karpina villages represent a southern and eastern border of the area. A road linking Rudka and Wola Rafałaowska villages constitutes the northern and western border of the complex. The leading concept is based along the main north-south axis, highlighted by location and spatial composition of the main building, main park alley and lounges. The layout of side and transverse alleys in the park is quite fuzzy - nearly of an antithetical arrangement at the sole hospital. Hospital, utility and residential buildings are concentrated in the northern part of the complex. The remaining part of the area is occupied by a forest park. Access to the sanatorium is provided by a road from the west, leading from Rudka village, leaving the hospital on the southern side and fading in the utility part. Tracks of the former horsecar run almost parallel to this road. The complex is fully surrounded by a fence made of prefabricated concrete elements. Lack of additional fences within the complex area. A main gate with a lodge is located at the entrance to the complex. At the eastern border of the complex, opposite the hospital, there is a director’s house, new summer lounges, a residential and administrative building, a meteorological station, a biological filter, while in the north-eastern corner there is a carpentry workshop, garages and a morgue. There is a well between the administrative building and the hospital. Opposite the hospital, at the northern border of the complex, there is an ice house, a basement, two enclosed deep wells, boiler houses and a residential building. These buildings do not form regular arrangements, as they are subordinate to technological requirements. Asphalt, gravel or pavement slab roads lead to these buildings.

The feature is open to visitors throughout the year.

Compiled by Katarzyna Kosior, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, 01-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Atlas Zabytków Architektury w Polsce, H. Faryna - Paszkiewicz, M. Omilanowska, R. Pasieczny, Wydawnictwo naukowe PWN. Warszawa 2003 r.
  • J. Żabicki, Leksykon zabytków architektury Mazowsza i Podlasia, Arkady, Warszawa 2010 r.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Tom X Województwo Warszawskie, zeszyt 8 powiat mińsko - mazowiecki, Instytut Sztuki PAN, Warszawa 1968 r.
  • Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów Słowiańskich, Warszawa 1880 r.
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytku architektury i budownictwa tzw Karta Biała, A. Semeniuk, listopad 1993 r.
  • Zabytki architektury i budownictwa ludowego, woj. siedleckie, ODZ Warszawa 1988 r.
  • J. Gliński, Rudka w walce z gruźlicą 1908 - 1979, Warszawa 1980 r.

General information

  • Type: public building
  • Chronology: 1902-1908
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Rudka-Sanatorium
  • Location: Voivodeship mazowieckie, district miński, commune Mrozy - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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