Holy Trinity parish church, Radzyń Podlaski
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Holy Trinity parish church

Radzyń Podlaski

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The church represents a late phase of the so-called “Lublin Renaissance” and is believed to be a perfect example of a church designed in the Lublin style, its ultimate form being the result of extension of an earlier, smaller church following a single-nave layout and featuring a pair of transept chapels; another notable feature of the church is the presence of the plasterwork decorations of its vaulted ceilings, typical of the workshop of Jan Wolff - the leading figure in the “Lublin Renaissance” movement; the artist’s signature has been in fact discovered on the Mniszech family tomb which is located inside the northern chapel.

History

The first, wooden parish church of the Holy Trinity in Kozirynek (the name under which Radzyń was known at the time) is known to have existed back in the second half of the 15th century, with the parish being established in 1456. Somewhere around the year 1612, a brick tomb chapel of the Mniszech family was added, featuring an ornate marble tomb dedicated to Mikołaj Mniszech and his wife Zofia. The brick church was most likely erected during the second quarter of the 17th century by Jan Wolff, a renowned brickmason; it was completed in 1641, with consecration following in 1644. Along with the church itself, a second, southern chapel was also added, forming a cruciform floor plan. The gate in the form of a triple arcade, leading towards the church from the palace, originates from the same period. In the second half of 18th century, both chapels were redesigned in the Late Baroque style; it is believed that the renowned architect Jakub Fontana might have in fact been responsible for the redesign. It was also at that point that the brick gate-belfry was constructed. In years 1990-1992, the roof tiles were replaced with sheet metal cladding. A comprehensive renovation of the church was performed in years 2010-2013. The single-storey vicarage and infirmary were built during the second half of the 18th century, while the brick perimeter wall was added in the early 19th century.

Description

The church is situated in the south-eastern corner cluster of old town buildings; surrounded by the former cemetery, the church stands on the axial line of the main entrance (i.e. not the representational entrance) into the palace (the former castle).

The church, designed in the so-called Lublin style incorporating features of the Renaissance and Mannerist styles, is a brick building with plaster-covered walls. Designed on a rectangular floor plan, it is a single-nave, three-bay structure with a two-bay chancel with a semicircular termination; the width and the height of the chancel is identical to that of the nave, with the nave and chancel being separated by a rood arch. The main body of the church is flanked by a pair of identical towers designed on a square floor plan, with a pair of identical sacristies positioned nearby, on both sides of the chancel. The nave and the chancel share a single, gable roof clad with sheet metal.

The interiors of the nave and the chancel feature barrel vaults with lunettes, their abutment falling upon short sections of entablature devoid of an architrave, resting upon pilasters with Corinthian capitals and fluted shafts. The pedestals underneath are of the double type. A pair of low entrances to the side chapels are adorned by arched surrounds with heraldic cartouches above the cornice. The organ gallery, supported by a trio of arches, is topped with a brick parapet adorned with plasterwork decoration in the form of panels with palmettes and rosettes. The vaulted ceiling inside the nave is covered with a plasterwork lierne pattern characteristic of churches designed in the “Lublin style”. An analogous pattern is also present on the sail vault inside the northern chapel; the southern chapel, on the other hand, features a similar vault, albeit with no decorations whatsoever. The ceramic tiles on the floor are arranged in a checkered, diagonal layout.

The front façade of the church follows a quasi-two-storey, three-axial layout with a two-storey arcaded gable adorned with volute-shaped fractables and pinnacles. The wall of the front façade is partitioned by shallow buttresses, their lower and upper sections stylised to resemble Corinthian and Doric pilasters respectively. The upper entablature is Doric in style, featuring the use of both triglyphs and strapwork decoration incorporated in the metopes; the same entablature is also used for the walls of both the nave and the chancel. The plinth underneath the decorative gable carries the date “1641”, while another date - 1644 - can be seen inside the segmental pediment which crowns the arcaded aedicula at the top. The arched main entrance portal dating back to ca. 1640 is crowned with a Late Baroque heraldic cartouche of the house of Potocki (3rd quarter of the 18th century). The spaces above the portal and on the side axial lines of the façade are decorated with blind windows framed by surrounds which carry an interlacing pattern; the central blind window is rectangular in shape, while the ones that flank it are topped with segmental arches. Above the central blind window there is an oculus framed by a decorative surround adorned by an interlacing pattern and featuring label stops at the corners. The façades of the main body of the church and of its chancel are partitioned with broad Corinthian pilasters carrying a full entablature. The windows are framed with surrounds carrying the same interlacing pattern as the ones mentioned above and are topped with cornices embellished with strapwork decorations in their top section. The smooth walls of the low sacristies are topped with decorative roof parapets with corner aediculae adorned with niches and pairs of rather dainty herm pilasters, with strapwork ornamentation being used for the curtain walls. The Late Baroque décor of the chapel façades features the use of faux pilasters and gables framed with volute-shaped fractables and convexo-concave cornices.

The original fixtures and fittings include the wooden main altarpiece dating back to the second half of the 18th century, two brick side altarpieces from the late 18th century, a wooden pulpit from the second quarter of the 17th century and a baptismal font from the second half of the 18th century. The northern chapel houses the two-tier Mniszech family tomb, designed in the Mannerist style and dating back to the early 17th century.

The gate-belfry.

compiled by Roman Zwierzchowski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 29-04-2015.

Bibliography

  • G. Michalska, Radzyń Podlaski, woj. bialskopodlaskie. Studium urbanistyczno-historyczne, typescript of the Historical Monument Conservation Workshop (PP PKZ) in Lublin, 1987
  • G. Michalska, R. Zwierzchowski (pałac), Ł. Michalski (fortyfikacje), Radzyń Podlaski. Miasto i rezydencja, in: Radzyń Podlaski. Miasto i rezydencja, collective work, G. Michalska and D. Leszczyńska (eds.), Radzyń Podlaski 2011, pp. 29-36

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1612 - 1641
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Jana Pawła II 15, Radzyń Podlaski
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district radzyński, commune Radzyń Podlaski (gm. miejska)
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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