Hillfort, Posadów
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
photo

The ring fort contains the remains of probably a very well-preserved early-medieval fortified settlement, as well as a late-mediaeval fortification which served as a seat of a knight, with which the ramparts and moat that are visible to this day are associated. Due to the fact that not agricultural activities have been carried out within the area of the ring fort (with the exception of the maidan) its endemic flora which currently does not occur in the vicinity of the site but once was common there has been preserved.

Location and description

The ring fort is located approx. 1 km to the north-west of the built-up area of the village of Posadów, on a high loess promontory (232 m above sea level) that juts out into the valley of the Kamionka river, tributary of the Huczwa river, to the north. Currently, it is known as ‘Zamczysko’, ‘Okopek’, ‘Okopik’ or ‘Okopy Chmielnickiego’. The entire complex which covers approx. 1 ha is situated in a heavily exposed area. The earthwork in Posadów is a ring fort with a roughly circular maidan which measures from 58 to 79 m (between the peaks of the ramparts), surrounded by a double rampart which is up to 5 m high and an 8-metre-wide moat, running between the ramparts. The outer earthen rampart to the north-east has a 6.60-metre-wide gap, most likely the remains of the former gate. The outer rampart is also transected on the southern side over a distance of 16 m.

History

An open settlement and probably the ring fort were functioning within the boundaries of the current village of Posadów in the Early Middle Ages (from the 9th to the 11th century). In the 14th century the early medieval settlement was replaced by a small fortified settlement on a mound which was the seat of a knight. At that time the earthen ramparts were built (strengthened?) and a moat was built or only deepened. The small fortified settlement was functioning until the end of the 15th century.

The history of the village of Posadów is associated with the ownership of a knight and later of nobles. There is no mention of the ring fort in the earlier written sources. The earliest written record of the structure dates from the late 19th century. The Geografical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland (pol.Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego) states that in Posadów there is a ‘quadrangular castle enclosed with a double horseshoe-shaped rampart covering an area of approx. 1.5 morgen’. In 1837, an investigation of the ring fort uncovered weapon elements: lobster-tailed pot helmet, pauldrons and spur; in 1858 a flint axe was found.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Archaeological works at the site were conducted by Irena Kutyłowska and Andrzej Hunicz in 1973. These surveys were small in scope. Three exploratory excavations were undertaken: the first one at the top of the inner rampart up to half the width of the moat, the second one on the north-south axis near the north end of the maidan, and the third one on the east-west axis near the eastern edge of the maidan. The location and height plan of the site was drawn up by J. Harasimowicz in 1973 and K. Bęcek and J. Smok in 1985. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by W. Koman in 1985. During archaeological investigations researchers recorded cultural build-ups and movable monuments, mainly fragments of pottery, fragments of glass, and fragments of animal bones. It was found that the rampart and the moat were built at the same time. As indicated by the pieces of bricks and fragments of vessels found in the thin cultural layer in the moat, most probably they were constructed and used in the 14th and 15th century. An investigation of the maidan of the small fortified settlement revealed a large thickness of cultural layers (not reaching the layer of undisturbed soil), but due to the lack of movable historical materials from these build-ups they could not be associated with early medieval or medieval settlements. The excavation of the area near the narrowing connecting the maidan of the small fortified settlement to the top parts of the rampart unearthed a layer of burned clay, which probably is a remnant of fortifications, perhaps dating back to the Early Middle Ages.

The monument is open to visitors. The ring fort is located on the route of tourist trails ‘Szlak Chopinowski’ and ‘Szlak cerkiewny’.

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 20.08-2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Antoniewicz A., Wartołowska Z., Mapa grodzisk w Polsce, Wrocław 1964, pp. 40, 67.
  • Banasiewicz E., Grodziska i zamczyska Zamojszczyzny, Zamość 1990, p. 86.
  • Gurba J., Grodziska Lubelszczyzny, Lublin 1976, p. 28.
  • Gurba J., Grodzisko w Posadowie, „Wiadomości Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 18, p. 112.
  • Kutyłowska I., Posadów, pow. Tomaszów Lubelski, „Informator Archeologiczny. Badania 1973”, Warsaw 1974, p. 264.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, „Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. 6, sec. F, pp. 363, 487.
  • Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Warszawa 1880-1904, vol. 8, pp. 840-841.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: IX-XI w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Posadów
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district tomaszowski, commune Telatyn
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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