World War I cemetery no. 8, Nowy Żmigród
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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World War I cemetery no. 8

Nowy Żmigród

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The distinguishing features of this cemetery include its compositional, architectural and landscape values. The cemetary itself commemorates the dramatic events of World War I.

History

The war cemetery no. 8 in Nowy Żmigród was built in years 1915-1916 by the War Graves Department of the Imperial and Royal Military Command in Cracow. The cemetery was designed by Dušan Jurkovič, a renowned Slovakian architect, who worked as the artistic director and designer at the “Żmigród” First War Grave District during the war. The cemetery serves as the final resting place for the bodies of fallen soldiers who died on the nearby battlefields or in field hospitals during the clashes for the control of the Carpathian mountain passes which took place in winter 1914/1915 as well as during the attempts to aid the Fortress of Przemyśl, which was besieged by the Russians at the time, and during the battle of Gorlice (2-7.05.1915). The cemetery contains graves of 58 Autro-Hungarian soldiers from the 47th infantry unit from Quisca, Maribor and Gorizia (Slovenia), the 96th infantry unit from Karlovac (Croatia), Pétervárdu (Serbia), Nevesinji (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Temesváru (formerly Hungary, currently known as Timişoara [Romania]), the 97th infantry unit from Bjelovar, Karlovac (Croatia) and Trieste (currently in Italy), the 9th Landwehr infantry unit from Litomĕřice and Chomutova (Czech Republic), the 27th Landwehr infantry unit from Ljubljana and Gorizia (Slovenia) as well as from the 2nd, 3rd and 6th Feldjäger battalion; 7 German soldiers from the 46th Prussian infantry unit from Poznań and Września, the 77th Prussian infantry unit from Celle, the 3rd Bavarian infantry unit from Augsburg, the 13th Bavarian infantry unit from Inglostadt and Eichstätt; 149 Russian soldiers from the 32nd Kremenchuktsky infantry unit from Warsaw, the 198th Izmailsky infantry unit from Samara, the 190th Ochakivsky infantry unit from Ufa, the 191th Largo-Kagulsky infantry unit from Orenburg, the 192nd Rymnitsky infantry unit from Orenburg, the 193th Sviyazhsky infantry unit from Vyatka, the 195th Orovaysky infantry unit from Yekaterinburg and the 196th Insarsky infantry unit from Zlatoust. In years 2001-2005, comprehensive renovation works were performed, encompassing the restoration of the monument and the gravestones, the reconstruction of the original form of the fence (albeit using stone masonry in lieu of the original concrete) and the reconstruction of the lost gravestone plaques.

Description

The cemetery is located in the northern part of Nowy Żmigród and adjoins the eastern boundary of the parish cemetery, being surrounded by the gravestones of the subsequently extended cemetery from all other sides. The war cemetery is currently a separate section of the said extended burial site. The surface of the cemetery is 0.165 hectares.

The cemetery occupies a trapezium-shaped plot of land. It is surrounded by a fence made of stone and wood. The western entrance leads through a stone gate which consists of two monumental posts made of stone blocks. Outside opening hours, access is restricted by a double gate which features a simple steel grid design. The highlight of the cemetary is a tall, monumental statue made of light-coloured sandstone, consisting of five columns forming a square formation, topped with pronounced capitals adorned with acanthus leaves. The columns are positioned on a tall, square plinth surrounded by three wide steps. The central column is both taller and more massive than the corner ones, and is surmounted by a stone cross. The metal plaque on the plinth contains an inscription which reads as follows: „FRAGH NIGHT, WER FREUND ODER FEIND GEWESEN HIER RUHN DEM EID GETREUE HELDEN AUS; AUS TAUSENDEN IM WILD ERGRIMMTEN STRAUSS VOM WURGER TOD ZU OPFEREN AUSERLESEN, VOM WÜRGER TOD, DER GRAB AN GRABER REIHTE, BIS SICH VERSÖHNUNG AUS DEM HASS BEFREITE”. Translated, the phrase means: “Ask not, who was friend and who was foe. Thousands of heroic men upheld their oaths and fell in a fierce battle; the victims now rest in even rows of graves, the angel of death welcomed them all to heaven, freed from the clutches of hate.” The graves themselves are marked with stone pedestals topped with cast iron crucifixes, adorned with palmette decorations framing the plaques which contain the names, military ranks and information on the specific unit which the given soldier belonged to, or, in other cases, just the soldier’s nationality. All in all, the cemetery contains 157 individual graves as well as 27 mass sepulchres, in which a total of 214 soldiers were interred, representing all of the armies which had once clashed in the surrounding area. The cemetery is surrounded by old deciduous trees.

The cemetery is accessible all year round. It is located on the trail of the eastern front of World War I.

Compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 21.08.2014.

Bibliography

  • Broch R., Hauptmann H., Zachodniogalicyjskie groby bohaterów z lat wojny światowej 1914-1915, Tarnów 1996.
  • Bańkosz R., Frodyma R., Sapeta A., Szlak frontu wschodniego I wojny światowej - teksty tablic informacyjnych, compiled 2012 r[LB1] .
  •  Internet website: Armia Niemiecka w czasie I wojny światowej - http://www.armianiemiecka.tpf.pl/armia.htm, access 21-08-2014 r.
  • Internet website: Cmentarze I wojny światowej - http://www.cmentarze.gorlice.net.pl/ , access  21-08-2014.
  • Internet website: Ogólnopolska Komputerowa Baza Cmentarzy Wojennych - cmentarz z I wojny światowej nr 4 - http://groby.radaopwim.gov.pl/grob/12447/, access   21-08-2014
  • Internet website: Österreich-Ungarns bewaffnete Macht 1900-1914 - http://www.malorenz.at/index.htm, access  21-08-2014.
  • Internet website: Русская армия в Великой войне: Картотека формирований - http://www.grwar.ru/regiments/regiments.html?form_type_id=31&id=0&limit_form_id=0, access 21-08-2014.

General information

  • Type: cemetery
  • Chronology: 1915-1916
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Nowy Żmigród
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district jasielski, commune Nowy Żmigród
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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