Castle ruins, Milicz-Zamek
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Ruins of a lowland castle exhibiting features of both the Gothic an Renaissance styles, surrounded by remnants of earthen fortifications. Vestiges of the Gothic Revival reconstruction of the castle in the late 18th century are still distinguishable despite the overall condition of the structure.

History

The castle was erected during the fourth quarter of the 13th century or shortly after 1319, at the request of one of the bishops of Wrocław. At one point, the castle became the subject of a feud between the bishop andJohn of Bohemia, the Count of Luxembourg, whose forces seized the fortress in 1339. In 1358, the bishop sold the castle to Konrad I of Oleśnica. In 1432, it was destroyed by the Hussites. In 1494, the castle was purchased by the Kurzbach family and modernised following a fire which engulfed the structure in 1536. From 1590 onwards, the castle has remained in the hands of the von Maltzan family. During the 17th century, the eastern gatehouse was replaced by a brand new structure. Following a devastating fire of 1797, the castle was reconstructed in the Gothic Revival style, the design being attributed to the architect Leonhard Schätzel, although this remains uncertain. During that period, the castle saw use as a cotton mill, paint manufacturing plant and manorial theatre. From the second half of the 19th century, the castle has remained in a state of ruin. Archaeological research of the site was carried out in the years 1986-1988.

Description

The castle ruins are located on the southern bank of the Barycz river, west of the town, on a small, artificial hill situated in the park which accompanied the nearby palace. The walls are made of brick (Gothic bond and Baroque-era bricks), with gaps filled in using mass-made brick. The structure bears the hallmarks of both the Gothic and Renaissance styles, with some Baroque and early Gothic Revival elements. Designed on an irregular polygonal floor plan, the castle is surrounded by a perimeter wall. Parts of the ramparts and moats can still be made out in the surrounding landscape, as can the access path leading from the east towards the inner courtyard. Remnants of a three-storey residential keep from the fourth quarter of the 13th century, designed on a rectangular floor plan and featuring a surviving early modern vaulted ceiling of the barrel type, can still be seen on the southern side of the courtyard. The tower is known to have been extended towards the east in the early 16th century. Two wings from the early 16th century stretch towards the west and the north, both of their interiors designed as single, open spaces. Inside the northern wing, remnants of a great hall can still be discerned, its ceiling supported by a single, central pillar. The southern and eastern façades show traces of rectangular Gothic Revival blind windows as well as vestiges of painted decorations.

The building can be viewed from the outside.

compiled by Grzegorz Grajewski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Wrocław, 21-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce. Seria Nowa, vol. IV, issue 3. Województwo wrocławskie, J. Pokora and M. Zlat (eds.). Milicz, Żmigród, Twardogóra i okolice, original compilation by J. Wrabec. Warsaw 1997, pp. 52-53.
  • Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warsaw 2006, pp. 567-568.
  • Chorowska M., Zamek czy pałac? Ruina zamku w Miliczu na tle średniowiecznych siedzib biskupich w Europie, [in:] Milicz. Clavis Regni Poloniae. Gród na pograniczu, J. Kolenda (ed.), Wrocław 2008, pp. 129-142.
  • Chorowska M., Kudła A., Architektura i historia średniowiecznego zamku w Miliczu, [in:] Nie tylko zamki, Wrocław 2005, pp. 83-96.
  • Kajzer L., Kołodziejski S., Salm J., Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Warsaw 2002, pp. 307-308.
  • Pilch J., Leksykon zabytków architektury Dolnego Śląska. Warsaw 2005, p. 231.

General information

  • Type: castle
  • Chronology: 4. ćw. XIII w. lub po 1319 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Milicz-Zamek
  • Location: Voivodeship dolnośląskie, district milicki, commune Milicz - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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