Góra Zamczysko archaeological and nature reserve, Makoszyn
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Góra Zamczysko archaeological and nature reserve

Makoszyn

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One of several mountains in the region, apart from Góra Dobrzeszowska, Gródek Leśny near Przysucha and maybe Góra Grodowa in Tumlin, interpreted as early medieval places of pagan worship.

Location and description

The site is situated in the “Zamczysko” nature reserve located in the village of Makoszyn, Bieliny commune, in the vicinity of the village of Widełki. It occupies the eastern high ground below the Góra Zamczysko summit. The mountain has steep slopes on three sides (northern, eastern and southern). It is surrounded by marshland and watercourses. It is covered by a mixed forest complex. The summit of the mountain is relatively flat, owing to which ramparts surrounding the former sanctuary are still visible. The site has an elongated, irregular shape resembling an ellipse and occupies an area of about 1 ha. Three perimeter ramparts and two terraces between them have survived, as well as a system of passages and entrances.

One more site is also situated in the neighbourhood, called Góra Zamczysko, which is incorrectly assigned to the village of Widełki. It is situated on the summit of a mountain with the same name but rising in the Orłowińskie Range between Huta Nowa and Zagórze, nearby the Daleszyce - Raków road. It is where a supposed medieval knight’s watchtower is located, dated to the 13th-14th century.

History

The pagan centre of worship existed on Góra Zamczysko in the vicinity of the villages of Makoszyn and Widełki near Daleszyce in the 10th century. Currently, the entire area is overgrown by a forest.

Condition and results of archaeological

In 1985-1986, Eligia Gąssowska carried out research on Góra Zamczysko, described as preliminary archaeological reconnaissance. 14C analyses were performed of a charcoal sample, which confirmed the dating of the structure to the 10th century (980 AD ±55). Detailed results of the work have not been published. The site was interpreted as a pagan shrine of the goddess of earth Makosza. E. Gąssowska emphasised excellent visibility from the Łysa Góra sanctuary, finding a close relationship between the two sites. The Widełki sanctuary was supposedly devoted to the goddess of earth, and the one on Łysa Góra - to the supreme masculine deity, Perun.

The monument is open to visitors. A blue trail leads to the summit.

compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 27-04-2016.

Bibliography

  • (Widełki) Makoszyn, rezerwat archeologiczno-przyrodniczy „Góra Zamczysko”, Teczka zbiorcza na dokumentację nr IA.5134.143, Archiwum IA WUOZ w Kielcach
  • Góra „Zamczysko”, rezerwat przyrody, Teczka zbiorcza na dokumentację nr AZ-AIA.5134.D.27.1999, Archiwum IA WUOZ w Kielcach
  • Czernek D., Archeologia [w:] Świercz A. (red.) „Archeologia, Monografia Cisowsko-Orłowińskiego Parku Krajobrazowego”, Kielce 2014, s. 454-456
  • Gąssowska E., Świątynia pogańska w Widełkach [w:] R. Mirowski (red.) „Dzieje i Zabytki Małych Ojczyzn”, t. 2, „Gmina Daleszyce”, Kielce 2004, s. 34-36
  • Stachurski M., Referat: Zaawansowanie prac nad planem ochrony rezerwatu przyrody „Zamczysko”, położonym na terenie nadleśnictwa Łagów, na okres od 1.01.2000 do 31.12.2019 r., Kielce 1999, maszynopis w Archiwum IA WUOZ w Kielcach

General information

  • Type: Place of worship
  • Chronology: X w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Makoszyn
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district kielecki, commune Bieliny
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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