Hospital of Anna Maria, currently paediatric centre of dr Janusz Korczak, Łódź
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Hospital of Anna Maria, currently paediatric centre of dr Janusz Korczak

Łódź

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At a time when it was erected, it was one of the most modern children hospitals in Poland and Europe. Its founders and initiator have used their best endeavours for the hospital to be built according to the latest achievements of technical and medical and sanitary knowledge. The institution was open during World War II - German and Polish children were treated there. At the beginning of its activity, until the outbreak of war, hospital was subsidised only from private donations and fixed fees collected from patients from wealthy families. Despite unstable financial situation the institution offered some of the places for children from poorest families which could not afford for bearing any costs. The hospital was established owing to the fortunes of industrialists of Łódź, among others: Scheibler, Herbst, Geyer and Kunitzer families, thus it constitutes the evidence of the development of the capitalist, industrial Łódź. Stylistically the structure was inextricably linked to the brick industrial architecture designed in Łódź in the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. Paul Riebensahm was the constructor of the hospital, and construction works were vested in the local company - Nestler and Ferrenback. Pavilion V, built in 1928, was designed by a known architect working within the area of Łódź - Wiesław Lisowski. From the moment of its establishment until present times the hospital continuously fulfiled its initial function. It is the most recognizable hospital institution among the citizens of Łódź, admitting children invariably since July 2012, when its thorough renovation and modernisation was commenced.

History

Hospital buildings were erected in the years 1902-1904 and in 1908 and 1928. The institution commenced its activity on 9 March 1905. Co-initiators and founders of the hospital, generously supporting the construction of the institution financially from the very beginning, since it was supposed to commemorate their daughter - Anna Maria, who died prematurely, were Edward and Matylda Herbst. Karol Jonscher, Emil Geyer, Juliusz Kunitzer and many others, distinguished for the social works and donations for the institution, were also the initiators of the hospital construction. In the years 1903-1904 administrative building was erected, as well as the surgery, laryngology, neurology and infectious diseases pavilions, washhouse and mortuary. In 1908 a rehabilitation part was added to the surgery pavilion. The building, also erected owing to the foundation of Matylda and Edward Herbst, constituted a tribute to the co-initiator and director of the hospital - doctor Karol Jonscher. In 1928 the pavilion for children with tuberculosis of Juliusz Kunitzer - founder of the building, was built.

Description

Free standing pavilions in park surroundings, erected of full ceramic brick on limestone mortar. Partition walls in respective buildings (except for wooden service walls of attics) are also made of brick. Roof trusses in almost all buildings are made of wood, like ceilings between the storeys. There is a flat ceiling made of concrete slabs laid on steel grid only in the kitchen building. Characteristic feature distinguishing the architecture of hospital buildings are high, pointed-arch ending window and door openings. In the front administrative building the main entrance was accentuated additionally with a large rose window with colourful glazing. Door wings are of panel-and-frame construction with glazed transom light, wooden windows - of box-type composite construction. Multi-hipped roofs of respective structures, covered with rectangular sheet metal (administrative building) and with black bituminous paper, are distinguishing features and they give a uniform character to the whole complex, as do the decorative gables accentuating main entrances to the pavilions. Some of the buildings have basements (kitchen pavilion, pavilion for children with tuberculosis) or partially with basements (infectious diseases pavilion). Inside there are staircases with concrete steps covered with terrazzo (except the kitchen building) and forged balustrades. Flooring of the corridors, laboratories, admission halls and sanitary facilities are covered with terrazzo or floor tiles. There is a linoleum on the floors of office rooms. Composition axis of the complex runs from North to the South. The premises are of elongated rectangle shape. The northern part, from al. J. Piłsudskiego, is taken by administrative building. Remaining pavilions: surgery, infant and internal medicine, neurology and ophthalmology units, washhouse with boiler-house, isolation ward (currently ophthalmology), neurology, kitchen, laryngology and patological anatomy laboratory, cover the plots to the South. The entire complex is surrounded by high brick fencing with characteristic posts. In the front fence decorative wrought iron elements of arches and access gate have been used. A small park with old-growth trees, surrounding the hospital buildings, is divided with alleys leading to respective pavilions. Elements of its fittings are simple lanterns and wooden benches. Apart from the building of the ward for children suffering from tuberculosis, which was erected as the last one and which is plastered, and the infectious diseases pavilion, exterior walls of the remaining buildings were finished with dark red face brick, with elements of decorations in the form of brick rhomboidal friezes running under the roof eaves. Decorative elements drawing attention are also plastered panels under the windows in the administrative building, kitchen building and in the infant - internal medicine, surgery, laryngology units, washhouse and mortuary pavilions.

No visitor access to the building. Since July 2012 within the area of all pavilions the restoration, maintenance and modernisation works are under way. Its completion is planned for June 2014. Upon the works completion the hospital - with modern equipment and interior design - will resume its operation. Hospital is not a structure to be accessed by visitors.

Compiled by Patrycja Podgarbi, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Łódź, 09.05.2014.

Bibliography

  • Grygiel T., Szpital Anny Marii widziany oczyma historyka miasta i architektury, [in:] Gołębiowska M. (ed.), Szpital Anny Marii w Łodzi. Zasługi dla pediatrii, Łódź 2005, pp. 59-67
  • Stefankiewicz E., Badania historyczno-archiwalne i ikonograficzne identyfikujące pierwotny wygląd PAWILONU nr V izolacyjno-gruźliczego dla dzieci, dawnego szpitala Anny Marii obecnie Szpitala im. Janusza Korczaka w Łodzi przy al. Józefa Piłsudskiego 71, Łódź 2009, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Łodzi.

General information

  • Type: public building
  • Chronology: 1 poł. XX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Piłsudskiego 71, Łódź
  • Location: Voivodeship łódzkie, district Łódź, commune Łódź
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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