Rural complex, Kruszyniany
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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The spatial layout of the village was created during the period of the Volok Reform introduced in these territories in the mid-16th century, with the village being designed as a typical linear settlement. Following the arrival of Tatar soldiers and their families in 1679, the village became a multicultural settlement inhabited by both Muslims and a Christian minority, with both of communities having their local places of worship in the form of a mosque and a tserkva. Even today, the village has a thriving Tatar population which continues to adhere to the age-long religious traditions, with both the local mosque and the Muslim cemetery being in constant use. Both the mosque and the cemetery enjoy the status of monuments of history.

History

The village of Kruszyniany was established during the period of the Volok Reform in the first half of the 16th century; a description of the village from 1559 refers to a settlement where all the necessary measurements have already been taken, resulting in the formation of a regular spatial layout. The village was designed as a typical linear settlement consisting of two rows of gablefront houses positioned on both sides of the road. Initially, each house would be allocated one volok (i.e. about 21 hectares) of land; later on, due to the poor quality of the local soil, every plot was extended by an additional area of 2 morgen and 26 rods. The village has been virtually wiped off the face of the earth during the great wars of the mid-17th century. It was the overall depopulation of the area that prompted the authorities to allocate the land to the Tatar soldiers who have proved their allegiance to the Polish army during the long periods of conflict. The Tatars have erected a wooden mosque for themselves and established a Muslim cemetery; some of them have received slightly larger parcels of land, leading them to employ Christian (Ukrainian Greek Catholic) farm workers. The members of the Uniate church have established a separate cemetery and erected a wooden tserkva in the early 19th century, the latter being a filial church of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic parish in Krynki. The existing spatial layout of the village dates back to the 18th and 19th century.

Description

The village is a linear settlement stretching alongside the road leading from Krynki to Skroblaki, along the north-south axis, with houses positioned on both sides of the road. An Orthodox cemetery is located in the north-eastern part of the village; in the early 19th century, a Ukrainian Greek Catholic (Uniate) tserkva was erected there. Later on, in 1839, the church became an Orthodox tserkva. The wooden structure was lost to the blaze in 1983 and was replaced by the existing brick structure later on. In the 18th century, a mosque surrounded by a stone wall was erected in the middle of the village, on the eastern side of the road. About 200 metres south of the mosque lies the Muslim cemetery. Most of the existing village buildings are of the traditional, wooden type, even though a few modern, brick structures have sadly been erected as well, much to the detriment of the landscape value of the surrounding area. Over the years, the village has also lost its original character of a regular, linear settlement, made up exclusively of gablefront houses. Today, many parcels of land feature an irregular arrangement of buildings, with some of the houses being of the side-gabled type or positioned away from the road, at the back of the allocated lot.

The site is open to visitors.

compiled by Grzegorz Ryżewski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Białystok, 03-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Górska I., Meczety i mizary w Bohonikach i Kruszynianach pomnikami historii, “Biuletyn Konserwatorski Województwa Podlaskiego” 2013, issue 19, 2013, pp. 263-286.
  • Kalisz A., Oleksicki A., Kruszyniany. Studium historyczno-przestrzenne do planu zagospodarowania przestrzennego wsi Kruszyniany, Białystok 1980, pp. 22-23, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland, Regional Branch in Białystok.

General information

  • Type: spatial layout
  • Chronology: XVI/XIX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Kruszyniany
  • Location: Voivodeship podlaskie, district sokólski, commune Krynki - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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