Hillfort, Korfowe
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
photo

The earthwork called ‘The Castle’ (‘Zamczysko’) in the Kampinos Forest in an example of a well-preserved early medieval ring fort surrounded by a double ring of ramparts and two moats. Importantly, in this case we are dealing with an intact cultural landscape.

Location and description

The ring fort, known locally as ‘The Castle’ (‘Zamczysko’) is located within the area of the Kampinos National Park, around 5.5 km to the north-east of the village of Kampinos. It is situated on the southern edge of a large forest complex, on the southern edge of a wooded dune embankment, with vast marshes stretching at its foot. Natural landforms were used in building the fortified settlement. Dune embankments were cut through by depressions which remain waterlogged at all times (the so-called blowouts).

The ring fort measures approx. 40 m by 50 m. It is situated about 5 m above marshy meadows. The fort is surrounded by two ramparts and two moats. The inner rampart is about 1 m high on the side of the maidan and 3-4 m high, counting from the bottom of the moat. The two moats filled with water are visible from the north and west. They are around 3-5 m in width and are separated by a dune embankment. The ring fort is overgrown with an old-growth forest featuring a rare stand of trees.

History

The findings made during archaeological investigations of the site indicate that the ring fort dates back to the 13th century.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The ring fort was known from the surface surveys carried out in 1923 and 1956. Archaeological surveys were conducted by Jerzy Pyrgała in 1980. In 1985, the ring fort was registered under the programme of surface surveys within the framework of the “Archaeological Picture of Poland” project.

Trail excavation was undertaken in the north-eastern part of the ring fort. The excavation covered a fragment of the maidan, which is the inner part of the ring fort, and slope of the rampart towards the northern moat. An investigation of the central part of the maidan has revealed traces of a burnt layer, charcoal and lumps of pugging with impressions of wooden structures. Researchers have not found any immovable structures. An archaeological investigation area near the edge of the ring fort uncovered the remains of a domical stove which was around 2 m in diameter. It was built of clay around a wooden framework; the burnt structural elements discovered during archeological investigations were probably associated with its reconstruction. Investigations also unearthed the remains of wooden fortifications of the ring fort. These included burnt beams and laths, arranged horizontally, forming a 5-metre-wide strip. Movable monuments found during investigations included a large number of lumps of pugging, fragments of wooden structural elements, few fragments of ceramics, iron knife and staple.

The ring fort is located within a strictly protected area of the Kampinos National Park, near a junction of tourist trails: Główny Szlak Puszczy Kampinoskiej (Main Kampinos Forest Trail), Południowy Szlak Krawędziowy (Southern Boundary Trail) and Kampinoski Szlak Rowerowy (Kampinos Bike Trail). The structure is open to visitors.

Compiled by Agnieszka Oniszczuk, National Heritage Board of Poland, 04.09.2014 r.

Bibliography

  • Malinowska-Sypek A., Sypek R., Sukniewicz D., Brzeziński W. (wprowadzenie), Przewodnik archeologiczny po Polsce, Warsaw 2010, pp. 296-297.
  • Pyrgała J., Zamczysko, gmina Leoncin (d. pow. Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), woj. stołeczne warszawskie (dawniej jako Puszcza Kampinoska), [in:] Grodziska Mazowsza i Podlasia (w granicach dawnego województwa warszawskiego), collective work, Wrocław -Warszawa -Kraków -Gdańsk 1976, pp. 170-171.
  • Pyrgała J., Zamczysko, gm. Kampinos, woj. warszawskie, „Informator Archeologiczny”, Badania rok 1980, 1981, pp. 180-181.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XIII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Korfowe
  • Location: Voivodeship mazowieckie, district warszawski zachodni, commune Leszno
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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