Manor house and park complex, currently serving as the Experimental Facility of the Department of Animal Science of the National Research Institute, Kołuda Wielka
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Manor house and park complex, currently serving as the Experimental Facility of the Department of Animal Science of the National Research Institute

Kołuda Wielka

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An excellent example of a late 19th-century manor house surrounded by a park with a well-preserved spatial layout.

History

The first mentions of the village of Kołuda in written sources date back to somewhere around the year 1250, during which period the surrounding land remained the property of the Kuyavian bishops. In the 16th century, the Kołuda estate was subdivided into two distinct parts: Kołuda Wielka and Kołuda Mała. The Kołudzki family, who remained the owners of the village of Kołuda Mała, have subsequently taken control of the entire estate following the merger of the two manors in the 17th century; from that moment onwards, the surrounding lands remained the property of the family right until the end of the 18th century. Documents dating back to 1772 mention Marcin Kołudzki as the owner of the manor. In years 1820-1851, the manor belonged to the Mittelstaedt family, while between 1851 and 1887 it remained in the hands of the Mieczkowski family. It was at the initiative of the latter that the existing manor house was erected in 1880 or thereabouts, with some sections of the current structure having been redesigned over the years. In the late 19th and early 20th century, a new annex and outbuilding were added, with the outbuilding adjoining the eastern gable wall. In the early 20th century, a new, central avant-corps was added, as was the wall dormer above the façade overlooking the park. It was also during that period that the façades attained their original appearance and décor in the form of ornate avant-corps gables, rusticated finish as well as decorative surrounds and window headers. In the inter-war period, the estate remained the property of Bolesław Brodnicki. From 1946 onwards, it has served as the Institute of Animal Science. In 2008, the manor house underwent a comprehensive restoration, with the outbuilding following suit later on. Today, the ground-floor level of the manor house serves as an office space, while the garret was adapted as a conference room. The outbuilding, on the other hand, serves residential purposes.

Description

The manor house is located in the northern part of the village and is surrounded by the former manor and park complex consisting of the older section of the manor house as well as the eastern annex and outbuilding, the latter linked to the main body of the mansion by a small connecting section which adjoins the eastern gable wall. The manor house is a single-storey building designed on an elongated rectangular floor plan, featuring a pronounced, two-storey avant-corps projecting from the front façade and a similar avant-corps out in the back; the building is covered by a tall gable roof. The northern (front) façade features a three-axial avant-corps incorporating the main entrance to the building. The ground-floor level of the avant-corps is partitioned by mitred lesenes and profile cornices; at the first-floor level, the avant-corps features a pair of windows, topped with semi-circular arches, above which rises a pronounced, Baroque Revival with a volute-shaped fractable crowned with a semi-circular pediment adorned with a palmette motif and surmounted by an obelisk-shaped finial. The walls of the façade are adorned by rustication in the form of shallow, horizontal grooves, while the rectangular windows are topped with straight cornice section supported by corbels adorned with acanthus motifs. The surface of the roof is punctuated with a pair of dormers topped with three-sided rooflets. The design of the monumental wall dormer rising above the rear façade mirrors that of the front avant-corps. A heraldic cartouche adorns the gable. A door leading out into a small terrace is positioned on the easternmost axis of the building. The eastern annex is a single-storey structure, the design of its façade reminiscent of that of the older section of the manor house. The annex façades are capped with a restrained, slightly moulded cornice above which rises a solid roof parapet adorned with a dense arrangement of narrow, slit-like vertical blind windows. A monumental plinth supporting a pyramid-shaped obelisk surmounted by a sphere is positioned at the eastern edge of the façade. The outbuilding is a two-storey building designed on a rectangular floor plan, linked to the main building by a small, single-storey connecting section. The front (northern) façade of the outbuilding is asymmetrical and features a variety of window shapes; the rear façade features a projecting staircase avant-corps. The western façade of the outbuilding, partially obscured by the gable of the original manor house, is similarly disposed as the remaining façades, featuring a rectangular blind window at the first-floor level and a solid roof parapet adorned by plain, recessed panels and surmounted by ornamental urns.

The park - the manor house is surrounded by a landscape dating back to the mid-19th century, its total surface being about 4 hectares. Much of the original spatial layout of the park has survived to the present day despite the passage of time. The park features a number of visual links to the surrounding landscape. Notable features include the alleys, one of them lined with birch and hornbeam while the other is flanked by ash and elm trees. In addition, the park also features a number of ponds. The park is filled with many valuable specimens of various tree species, including honey locust, white poplar, common ash, common hornbeam, maple, small-leaved linden and Asian large-leaved linden, fluttering elm, pedunculate oak and sessile oak. There is also a great variety of shrub species, including common hawthorn, midland hawthorn, common hazel, forsythia, meadowsweet, dogwood, privet, viburnum, mock-orange and many others. Some of the trees enjoy the status of natural monuments, including two pedunculate oaks, three London plane trees, two small-leaved lindens, one large-leaved linden tree and one honey locust.

Limited access. The site is accessible during the opening hours of the Institute of Animal Science.

compiled by Historical Monument and National Heritage Documentation and Popularisation Department of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Cultural Centre in Bydgoszcz, 26-11-2014 - 8-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Libicki M., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Wielkopolsce. Przewodnik, Poznań (no date of issue stated), p. 116
  • E.Krause, Monografia historyczna Gminy i Miasta Janikowo - od pradziejów ludzkości do końca XX wieku, Janikowo 2002.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Vol. XI: Dawne województwo bydgoskie, issue 10: Mogilno, Strzelno, Trzemeszno i okolice, Warsaw 1982.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: ok.1880 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Parkowa 1, Kołuda Wielka
  • Location: Voivodeship kujawsko-pomorskie, district inowrocławski, commune Janikowo - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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