Hillfort, Borów
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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The hillfort in Niesulice, oval in shape and surrounded by moat and rampart, is an example of a structure of great scientific, sightseeing and tourist value.

Location and description

The hillfort in Niesulice is located at a distance of 3.6 km to the south of the Rzepin-Świebodzin road, on a markedly raised area of land, on a peninsula along the northern bank of the Niesłysz lake. Currently, the whole hillfort is overgrown with a beech forest.

The embankments stretch over 180 m along the north-south line, and over approx. 160 m along the east-west line. The main element of the structure (approx. 60 x 45 m) occupied an area of approx. 0.25 ha.

History

The earliest traces of settlement, including an iron spur and fragments of pottery, which were discovered on the site of the hillfort, date back to the initial phases of the Early Middle Ages (from the 6th and the 7th c. according to the authors of the analyses of the findings from archaeological research projects); However, the establishment of the fortified settlement is linked to the period from 1100 to 1250, when fortifications were built at a location of a defensive nature. In the 13th century on the site occupied by an older settlement complex a fortress was built, whose main component preserved to this day is a conical earthen structure formed on an oval plan (the structure measures approx. 45 m by 60 m at the base), which was raised above the level of the bottom of the moat surrounding it to a height of 6-8 m. It follows from the materials unearthed during excavations that the hillfort functioned until the 15th century. A mass grave with three skeletons discovered within the area of the hillfort in 1961 dates back to the Late Middle Ages.

The hillfort was mentioned in the German archaeological literature already in the second half of the 19th century, when it was known as ‘Seelaesche’, but the records contain the wrong location of the site — approx. 1.5 km to the west of Świebodzin, which indicates that it was apparently mistaken for the hillfort in Świebodzin, located approx. 1 km to the west of the town.

Condition and results of archaeological research

In 1957, during the surface surveys conducted by Wojciech Śmigielski, several fragments of ceramics were collected dating from the E-phase of the Early Middle Ages (1100-1250). In 1960, the first archaeological surveys were carried out by A. Kołodziejski and B. Kres. In the next season rescue research was conducted under the supervision of A. Kołodziejski. Based on the unearthed materials, researchers date the hillfort to the 6th-7th and 14th-15th centuries. Research excavations revealed a stone structure of the rampart and probably traces of its repairs and the remnants of a damaged pavement. Research excavations uncovered a large number of pieces of ceramics and iron objects, including more than forty bolt heads, which should be associated with a later stage of operation of the fortress. A mass grave also dates back to the Late Middle Ages. Archaeological investigations of the site also uncovered layers of burned materials, which may indicate that the fortified settlement rapidly ceased to exist.

The monument is available to visitors.

Compiled by dr Krzysztof Garbacz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Zielona Góra, 01-07-2014 r.

Bibliography

  • Dziedzic P., Michalak A., Szczepanek A., Co kości mówią nam o wojnie? Uwagi na marginesie odkryć urazów na czaszkach z masowej mogiły z grodziska w Niesulicach koło Świebodzina, „Acta Militaria Mediaevalia” 2011, t. 7, s. 49-78.
  • Hensel W., Hilczer-Kurnatowska Z., Studia i materiały do osadnictwa Wielkopolski wczesnohistorycznej, t. 4, Poznań 1972, s. 201-202.
  • Nowakowski D., Siedziby książęce i rycerskie księstwa głogowskiego w średniowieczu, Wrocław 2008, s. 277, 365-366.
  • Śmigielski W., Materiały z badań powierzchniowych na ziemi lubuskiej, „Fontes Archaeologici Posnanienses” 1961, t. 12, s. 308.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XII - XIII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Borów
  • Location: Voivodeship lubuskie, district świebodziński, commune Świebodzin - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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