Hill fort in Gródek Nadbużny, Gródek
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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The hill fort contains the remains of the historic fortified settlement of Wołyń, one of the so-called Cherven Towns. It is estimated that the settlement complex in Wołyń occupied an area of approx. 15 h. It consisted of the proper fortified centre, ancillary settlements immediately adjacent to the centre and open ancillary settlements.

Location and description

The hill fort is located in the northern part of the village of Gródek Nadbużny, at the mouth of the Huczwa river to the Bug river, on the distinctive promontory that is separated by a deep excavation from the high alluvial terrace of the valley of the Huczwa river. Currently, it is known as ‘The Castle’; formerly, it was referred to as ‘Horodysek’. This name, however, has reached the plateau located about 1 km to the south of the hill fort and is used there. The hill fort covers approx. 1 ha and is situated in a heavily exposed area. The difference in height between the base of the hill fort and the crown of the rampart is approx. 20 m. On average, the circular maidan surrounds a single and relatively well-preserved earthen rampart which is 5-10 m in width at the base and 2-4 m in height. The 10-20-metre-wide moat which is now used as a local road separates the hill fort from the test of the high plain.

History

The hill fort with ancillary settlements immediately adjacent to it was functioning on the site currently occupied by the village of Gródek in the Early Middle Ages (10th-13th c.). It was founded on the site of intensive prehistoric settlement. The collapse of the hill fort was probably a result of the Mongol Invasion of Poland (in 1241?). In the 13th-15th and 18th centuries the area of the hill forts served as the cemetery. In the 17th century the area was built up with manor buildings. An investigation of the hill fort also uncovered trenches from the First and Second World War.

The preserved remains of the earthen ramparts of the hill fort in Gródek Nadbużny and vast hills which extend in the surrounding area were associated closely with the fortified settlement of Wołyń by Jan Długosz in the Annals or Chronicles of the Famous Kingdom of Poland [pol. Roczniki czyli Kroniki Sławnego Królestwa Polskiego] as early as in the 15th century. According to chronicler Nestor, in 1018 Bolesław I the Brave crossed the river during a military expedition against Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Archaeological investigations of the site were carried out within the framework of the research project on ‘Research on the Origins of the Polish State’ and as part of the operation of the ‘Archaeological Station of the Cherven Towns of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków’. In addition, more than one third of the fortified settlement was investigated, as well as adjacent settlements were surveyed. The location and height plan of the site was drawn up by J. Fellmann in 1952. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by S. Jastrzębski in 1986. The findings made during the investigations have indicated that the hill fort is characterised by exceptionally complex stratigraphic relations. Its area was used extensively as early as before the establishment of the fortified settlements since excavations of the site revealed Neolithic objects (two Lublin-Volyn Painted Pottery culture graves), a Lusatian Culture pit which was used for an unknown purpose and graves from the Roman period. The oldest usable level associated with the functioning of the fortified settlement dates back to the 10th century (from this period date the remains of residential and utility buildings with half-earth lodges unearthed in the central part of the hill fort). The preserved rampart was constructed in the 11th century after the first fortifications had been partially levelled. At that time, the perimeter of the fortified settlement was approx. 260 m. The rampart was largely destroyed probably in the mid-13th century. Its relics bear traces of burning on the inner side of the fortified settlement. The half-earth lodges and above-ground buildings built slightly later which were recorded in the area of the maidan date from the second phase of construction of the buildings in the hill fort. Researchers have found numerous historical materials and, in particular, special regard should be paid to glass bracelets (which prove the Ruthenian influence), temple rings (which are evidence of contacts with the West Slavic world), and weapon elements, including fragments of chainmail, axe, large number of arrowheads and large knives-daggers, as well as lead stamp/seal dating probably from the 11th century. The residential and utility buildings as ancillary settlements immediately adjacent to the fortified centre were operating on the eastern side of the hill fort. Between the 8th and 11th century a large agricultural and farming settlement also existed on the north shore of the Huczwa river, at a distance of about 200 m from the hill fort. Once the settlement was abandoned, people started to establish settlements alongside the right bank of the Huczwa river, in the immediate vicinity of the hill fort.

The monument is open to visitors. The hill fort is located on route of: ‘Szlak Nadbużański’, ‘Nadbużańskiego Szlak Rowerowy’, ‘Królewski Kąt’ Historic and Nature Trail, ‘Nadbużański Tramp’ Local Tourist Trail, Transgranicza Trasa Turystyczna [Cross-Border Tourist Route], Transgraniczny Szlak Turystyczny [Cross-Border Tourist Trail].

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 20.09.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Banasiewicz E., Grodziska i zamczyska Zamojszczyzny, Zamość 1990, p. 64-70.

  • Bender W., Kieszkowska E., Kieszkowski K., Bronicka-Rauhutowa J., Badania w Gródku Nadbużnym w pow. Hrubieszowskim w 1955 r., „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1957, vol. 3, pp. 169-189.

  • Gądzikiewicz M., Sprawozdanie tymczasowe z badań przeprowadzonych w 1954 r. na stanowisku 2 (podgrodzie) w Gródku Nadbużnym, pow. Hrubieszów, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 2, pp. 69-74.

  • Gurba J., Grodziska Lubelszczyzny, Lublin 1976.

  • Kuśnierz J., Historia i stan badań latopisowych grodów Czerwień i Wołyń oraz ich okolic, „Zamojsko-Wołyńskie Zeszyty Muzealne” 2003, vol. 1, pp. 9-26.

  • Poppe A., Gród Wołyń. Z zagadnień osadnictwa wczesnośredniowiecznego na pograniczu polsko-ruskim, „Studia Wczesnośredniowieczne” 1958, vol. 4, pp. 227-300.

  • Poppe A., Wołyń, [in:] Słownik starożytności słowiańskich, vol. 6, Wrocław 1977-1980, part 2, pp. 587-589.

  • Rajewski Z., Sprawozdanie z badań na Grodach Czerwieńskich w 1954 r., „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 2, pp. 49-53.

  • Rauhut L., Sprawozdanie z badań w 1954 r. nad konstrukcją wału grodowego w Gródku Nadbużnym, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 2, pp. 65-67.

  • Rauhut L., Średniowieczne cmentarzysko szkieletowe na stanowisku 1A w Gródku Nadbużnym, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 2, pp. 78-81.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: wczesne średniowiecze (X - poł. XIII w.)
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Gródek
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district hrubieszowski, commune Hrubieszów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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