Chapel of St. Anthony of Padua, Gorzanów
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Chapel of St. Anthony of Padua

Gorzanów

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The chapel of St. Anthony of Padua on Dębowa Góra (Oak Mountain) is a building with a significant artistic value - an example of a small, local pilgrimage site of the kind which is now relatively rare in the Kłodzko Region, with only a few other such places having survived to the present day.

History

According to legend, St Anthony of Padua allegedly helped the tenant of a local piece of land, who was unable to afford paying his rent. A wooden cross was placed on the site where the miracle is believed to have taken place. Later on, in the years 1660-1665, this very place became the site of the sacramental chapel of St Anthony of Padua. Yet such early a date seems inconsistent with the architectural form of the existing building, which is more typical of the second quarter of the 18th century, unless its design actually incorporated motifs imported from abroad at the initiative of the von Herberstein brothers. If that is not the case, however, then it seems more likely that the current chapel was erected during the second quarter of the 18th century, replacing an older structure which had stood there (most likely a smaller, wooden chapel). This theory appears sound given the layout of the current building (with a central interior flanked by shrines placed in niches and a convexo-concave outline) as well as the form of the pediment which crowns the portal. These solutions are typical of the middle phase of the Baroque period. The chapel of St Anthony of Padua became a popular local pilgrimage destination and pardon chapel (with the parish fair being held on June 13) as early as the 17th century, with an increasing number of attractions being devised to maintain the interest among the faithful. A figure of St Onuphrius the Hermit in a kneeling posture was placed alongside the road leading to the chapel; the road itself was lined with 12 trees referred to as the Twelve Apostles, few of which have survived to the present day. In addition, a hermitage was built next to the chapel, inhabited by hermits in years 1759-1839 (or thereabouts); later on, until 1939, the hermitage was used as a place of residence of laypersons who worked as keepers of the chapel. This building, however, has not survived.

Description

The Baroque sacramental chapel of St Anthony of Padua is situated on the slope of the Antonówka (Dębowa Góra) mountain, within the boundaries of the Krowiarki mountain range, at the height of approx. 360 metres above sea level. The chapel is a stone structure, its walls covered with plaster, designed on a central, circular plan with four semi-elliptical niches, three of which serve as shrines, while the fourth performs the function of the chancel apse. A sacristy adjoins the part of the chapel where the chancel apse is located. The chapel is covered with a dome topped with a lantern. The façade of the chapel is partitioned with clustered lesenes, positioned between the niches which house the shrines. The chapel features Diocletian windows framed with moulded plasterwork surrounds; the entrance portal consists of a moulded surround, a pair of impost blocks at the edges, a section of profiled cornice as well as a flamboyant pediment. The pediment is a highly sophisticated design consisting of two layers; the layer that clings closely to the wall takes the simple form of a segmental arch; the second, raised layer takes the form of a split pediment consisting of two inverted, profiled sections of a segmental arch positioned at the edges. The portal itself incorporates a wooden, planked door, its design reminiscent of that of the doors of the chapel of St Barbara in Gorzanów, with even the door knockers being quite similar in appearance. The chapel on the Dębowa Góra mountain was originally located on an open ground; today, however, the building is partially obscured by a coppice of young trees. The alley that leads towards the chapel from the nearby village begins on Polna street; the alley was originally established in 1825 and survives only in parts. The lower part of the alley is lined with oaks, while the upper section is flanked by apple trees planted towards the end of the 19th century. Near the access path leading to the chapel there is a kneeling figure of St Onuphrius; slightly further away, one can see a Baroque Pieta from 1734, funded by Johannes Joseph Marx. From the slope of the hill one can enjoy a picturesque western vista of Gorzanów and its surroundings, with the local landmarks - the church and the palace - dominating the entire landscape.

The chapel can be viewed from the outside; the interiors may be explored upon prior arrangement with the ecclesiastical authorities in Gorzanów.

compiled by Iwona Rybka-Ceglecka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Wrocław, 01-07-2015.

Bibliography

  • Brzezicki S., Nielsen Ch., Grajewski G., Popp D. (ed.), Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warsaw 2006
  • Chapel of St Anthony, test included alongside an illustration in the calendar, Guda Obend 1917.
  • Katalog rzeźby barokowej na Śląsku, pod red. K. Kalinowskiego, Vol. 1. Hrabstwo Kłodzkie, Poznań 1987, [Institute of Art History of the Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Early Modern and Modern Art].
  • Kögler J., Historische Beschreibung der Pfarrei Grafenort, 1807, Vierteljahrschrift für Geschichte und Heimatkunde der Grafschaft Glatz, Band VII, 1887/1888.

General information

  • Type: chapel
  • Chronology: 2. poł. XVII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Gorzanów
  • Location: Voivodeship dolnośląskie, district kłodzki, commune Bystrzyca Kłodzka - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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