The Raczyn manor house, Gorzanów
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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With its exceptional artistic and cultural value, the manor house was rightly considered to be one of the most beautiful examples of Late Renaissance manorial architecture. The building has attracted the interest of art historians as early as back in the 1880s. Today, the building is in a state of almost complete ruin, its remaining value being mostly of a historical nature.

History

The first mentions of the feudal estate known as the Ratschinhof in written sources date back to the year 1341, when the manor remained in the hands of the local knightly families, followed by the local nobility. After 1482, the estate was taken over by one of the von Ratschin family lines, with its representatives - Friedrich von Raczin a.k.a. Wottig or his son Georg - having erected a Renaissance manor house here. The house was later redesigned in 1573. In its final form, the building featured a rectangular floor plan and was a tripartite structure with a central vestibule stretching across the entire width of the building, flanked by a pair of two-bay side sections. The rear part of the building was adjoined by an avant-corps. The main body of the manor house was covered by a pair of parallel gable roofs. The avant-corps featured a separate gable roof. The façades were pierced by single and paired windows. The windows themselves were adorned with profiled (fasciated) stone window surrounds with simple cornices above the window. The entrance door was surrounded with a stone portal bearing the date 1573 as well as a decorative band made up of rosettes and mirrored quoins. The gable-end façades were topped with highly decorative, two-storey gables which featured a lavish architectural articulation designed in the Renaissance style, albeit with many references to the Late Gothic period. This was clearly evident in the appearance of the bartisans (guerites) positioned at the edges of the gables which crowned the main body of the manor house, taking the form of overhanging corner turrets with keyhole-shaped embrasures for riflemen. In addition, the façades were also adorned with Late Renaissance sgraffito decorations, mostly designed to imitate architectural elements (rusticated quoins of various shapes and forms), although ornamental and figural themes such as foliate bands, dolphins and putti were featured here as well. Most of these decorations remained clustered around windows, at the base of the gables and on the gables themselves. The interiors featured both vaulted and flat ceilings. A barrel vault with lunettes rose above the ground floor vestibule, adorned with a decorative pattern which gave the appearance of a ribless stellar vault. Other ground floor interiors featured barrel vaults with lunettes, including one vault which not only featured a multitude of lunettes, but was also designed to resemble a lierne vault. The first-floor rooms featured flat ceilings, with the space above the vestibule being furnished with a beamed ceiling resting upon a sturdy crossbeam. The representational space in the front suite of rooms featured a sumptuously decorated, painted coffered ceiling designed in the Renaissance style. In 1625, the von Ratschin family was one of many to be deprived of their property as a punishment for their support of Protestantism. The land was taken over by the Imperial confiscation commission and subsequently sold in 1628 to the von und zu Anneberg baronial family, who merged it with the estate surrounding the Gorzanów castle. The Raczyn manor house has lost its former status and became the administrative centre of the surrounding manor farm. As such, it was only restored insofar as necessary. It is believed that the roof was modified in the course of such renovation works during the first half of the 19th century, where it received a number of eyebrow dormers. No stylistic modernisations of the building have ever taken place, allowing it to retain its Renaissance form right until the first half of the 20th century. After 1945, however, the manor house was abandoned and the inexorable process of decay has begun. By 1954, the roof was gone, as were some of the first floor ceilings, although the ground floor vaulted ceilings are known to have existed back then, as did the painted, coffered ceiling on the first floor and the decorative gables. By 1959, however, all of these features were gone, the structure having largely collapsed by that point. Today, the manor house is in a state of complete ruin. The remaining peripheral walls show signs of heavy damage. The interior partition walls as well as vaulted and flat ceilings have all collapsed. All that remains of the building’s former glory are a few window surrounds, remnants of the portal, traces of sgraffito decorations as well as of corbels which had once supported the oriel projecting from the building’s wing.

Description

The building can be viewed from the outside; it is currently surrounded by a concrete fence.

compiled by Iwona Rybka-Ceglecka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Wrocław, 2-07-2015.

Bibliography

  • Brzezicki S., Nielsen Ch., Grajewski G., Popp D. (ed.), Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warsaw 2006
  • Grundmann G., Burgen, Schlösser und Gutshäuser in Schlesien, Band II Schlösser und Feste Häuser der Renaissance, Marburg an der Lahn 1987.
  • Heinke A., Die Grafschaft Glatz, Breslau 1941.
  • Konwiarz R., Alt Schlesien Architektur-Raumkunst-Kunstgewerbe, Bechtermünz Augsburg Stuttgart Zwickau 1998 (reprint).
  • Lutsch H., Verzeichniss der Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Schlesien, Die Kunstdenkmäler der Landkreise des Reg.- Bezirks Breslau, Breslau 1889, Band II
  • Patzak B., Der Ratschin- und der Moschenhof in Grafenort, Glatzer Heimatblätter, 16, 1930

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: 2. poł. XVI w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Polna , Gorzanów
  • Location: Voivodeship dolnośląskie, district kłodzki, commune Bystrzyca Kłodzka - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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