Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Głubczyce
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Głubczyce

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The parish church in Głubczyce is one of the few temples in the Opole region with the preserved early-Gothic architectural detail: three portals with plant motifs of the 3rd quarter of the 13th century and stonework in the interior. In addition, the church houses fittings in the large part produced by the local carpentry workshop Ondruszów and a suite of stained-glass windows of the beginning of the 20th century.

History

The first recorded mention of the Głubczyce temple goes back to 1259. In the years 1272-1279, the church was supervised by the Order of Hospitallers from nearby Grobniki. They remained the administrators until 1810, except for the period 1535-1633, when the Duchy of Głubczyce and the parish church were in the hands of the Protestants.

In the years 1903-1907, the church was expanded according to the design by Max Hasak from Berlin. The choir was moved to the east, the Renaissance chapel of St Barbara was dismantled and gave way to a transept. As a result, the church received a characteristic plan of the Latin cross.

The church fittings and equipment largely originate in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The were made by a local sculptor whose works can also be seen in Nysa, Gliwice, Chorzów and other churches of the neighbouring villages.

Description

The parish church is located in the heart of the town. In the Middle Ages, the temple was close to the castle of the Přemyslids, and at the beginning of the 20th century, it was neighbouring a synagogue (destroyed during the Crystal Night) and an Evangelical church (demolished in 1955). Today, the only traces of the former structure is the Chapel of Sts Fabian and Sebastian at the sough transept arm (15th/16th c.).

In the first stage of its construction, the church was built as a three-aisled basilica with a rectangular nave, projecting polygonal chancel and two towers on the west. Next, still in the 13th century, the temple was transformed from a basilica into a three-aisled hall church with gable roofs over each of the aisles. Today, after the extension from the early 20th century, the temple has the shape of the Latin cross with a polygonally terminated chancel, two-bay transept and a row of chapels on the east and two quadrilateral towers on the west with a porch between them.

The church is covered with gable roofs with intersecting ridges, with dormers and a turret at the crossing of the aisles. The chapels and the sacristy are covered with lean-to roofs and multi-pitch roofs. The towers (quadrilateral in the lower levels and octagonal in the upper levels) are covered with cupolas with a lantern.

The transept arms are topped with stepped gables with pointed-arch blind windows. A similar gable is seen between the towers. The façade are articulated with buttresses and pointed-arch window openings filled with tracery and stained-glass windows. On the west façade axis and in the middle of the north façade and south aisle, there are early Gothic, sandstone portals with floral motifs. The west façades of the transept exhibit two-arcade neo-Gothic portals.

The interior is covered with cross-rib vaulting with keystones and arches between the aisles. The columns are supported by dosserets with stone capitals with plant ornamentation (2nd quarter of the 14th century). The choir balustrade was rebuilt in the 18th century; it was decorated in a Regency style.

The interior fittings originate mostly from the period of its extension. The main altar was made by Zeidler-Wimmel from Bolesławiec (1903-1907). Part of the side altars, pulpit and frames of the images of the Stations of the Cross were made by a local sculptor and his father: Paul and Karl Ondrusch, and the images were painted by Julian Wałdowski (2nd half of the 19th century).

The monument is available to visitors.

Compiled by Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 30-01-2015.

Bibliography

  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. VII: Województwo opolskie, z. 2: Powiat opolski, red. T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki, Warszawa 1961, s. 22-24.
  • Lutsch H., Verzeichnis der Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Schlesien, t. 4: Die Kunstdenkmäler des Reg. Bezirks Oppeln, Breslau 1892, s. 169-173.
  • Sztuka Śląska Opolskiego od średniowiecza do końca w. XIX, T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki, Kraków 1974, s. 32-33
  • Kościół Narodzenia Najświętszej Marii Panny w Głubczycach, K. Maler, B. Piechaczek, Głubczyce 2009
  • http://parafia.glubczyce.pl/artykul/historia-parafii (29.01.2015 r.)

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: XIII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Jana Pawła II , Głubczyce
  • Location: Voivodeship opolskie, district głubczycki, commune Głubczyce - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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