A pagan cult centre, Dobrzeszów
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
photo

One of a couple of mountans in the region, apart from Św. Krzyża, Góra Zamczysko in Widełki, Gródka Leśnego near Przysucha and probably Góra Grodowa in Tumlin, interpreted as an early medieval site of pagan cult.

Location and description

Góra Dobrzeszowska (368 mamsl) is the highest peak of the mountain range Dobrzeszowskie, the westernmost range in Łysogóry. The widest and flattest part of the north-western peak was surrounded by a triple ring of ramparts on a plan of an ellipsis, with an organised system of entrances and internal traffic.  The internal rampart constitutes a closed perimeter, and the two external ring-shaped ones close the area to the north-west, north-east, south-east from it, and adjoin a steep rock ridge from the west.  The whole complex is approx. 190 m long and 40-45 m wide. The fourth rampart lays at the southern foot of the mountain, within a distance of ca. 468 m from the main element. The entrance to the lowest ring of the ramparts was from the south-east, and via an easily accessible path, it led to the "gates" leading from the north-east to the internal parts of the complex. From the west, it was possible to get inside using steep steps carved out in rock between the second and the third rampart.

History

On the basis of surface surveys (Archaeological Image of Poland), it may by suspected that in the ancient times, the area was poorly populated. Stone ramparts which surround the sacred place were probably created in the 8th-9th century. In historical terms, Dobreszów belonged to the starostry of Chęciny, Sandomierskie voivodeship. Until the end of the 18th century, it was a component of the Małogoszcz and Dobrzeszów estate, but the forest with Góra Dobrzeszowska were separated from it and under supervision of forestry authorities. The village of Dobrzeszów belonged to the parish of Łopuszno. Stone ramparts were discovered in 1972 by Janusz Kuczyński.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Archaeological surveys were carried out in years 1975-82 by Eligia Gąssowska. During the works, an excavation was made across the highest and the middle rampart along with the area between them, as well as an excavation inside the internal sanctuary. Stone embankments were made of weathered local sandstone. The base was made of large blocks, and in the upper section, there were smaller stones filled with fine ones, creating a rampart semi-circular in projection. The current height of the rampart is between 1.3-1.9 m, and its width: 3 m. In the central part of the complex, purposefully processed stone blocks were discovered, named by E. Gąssowska "foundation" of the altar, the so-called central stone, and stone stelae.   In the area by the third rampart, there were stone arrangements interpreted as bins in which bonfires were made, and outside the ramparts, on their western side, the so-called sacrificial stone. The whole area was full of numerous traces of bonfires. On the first rampart, bonfires were made on the internal slope, while on the lower ramparts, on the external slopes. Dating of the cult site raises doubts among some scientists who associate the site, as the centre on the Św. Krzyż mountain, with population of the Przeworsk culture and the ironworks centre operated at the feet of Łysogóry in the 2nd-4th century A.C.

The historic building is accessible to visitors.

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland Kielce, 23.10.2014.

Bibliography

  • Informator Archeologiczny, 1977, pp. 115-116.
  • Fiałkowski J., Góra Dobrzeszowska jako przykład sanktuarium pogańskiego na tle innych obiektów w Górach Świętokrzyskich, [in:] Kalina D., Dąbrowski G. (eds.) Na włoszczowskich drogach historii. Materiały z sesji naukowych odbytych w Gruszczynie, Ludyni, Olesznie, Włoszczowie poświęconych dziejom powiatu włoszczowskiego, Włoszczowa - Krasocin 2012, pp. 73-90.
  • Gąssowska E., Sanktuarium pogańskie w Dobrzeszowie, „Z otchłani wieków” 1979, vol. XLV, fasc. 2, pp. 123-127.
  • Gąssowska E., Badania weryfikacyjne przestrzeni międzywałowej ośrodka kultowego na Łyścu w latach 1979-1982, [in:] Bracha K., Hadamik Cz. (eds.) Sacrum pogańskie - sacrum chrześcijańskie. Kontynuacja miejsc kultu we wczesnośredniowiecznej Europie środkowej, Warszawa 2010, pp. 118.

General information

  • Type: Place of worship
  • Chronology: VIII-IX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Dobrzeszów
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district kielecki, commune Łopuszno
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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