Castle and park complex, Dębno
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Castle and park complex

Dębno

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Castle/fortified manor preserved in nearly unchanged condition until the present times, with lavish architectural and stonework fittings from the 15th and 16th century—the best preserved and one of the leading examples in the country of a late-medieval knight seat, combining representative, residential, and defensive functions.

History

The castle was built in the years 1470-80 at the initiative of Jakub Dębiński, Odrowąż coat of arms, castellan of Cracow who in 1488 handed it over to his nephew Jakub from Szczekociny. In 1583, Fanciszek Wesselini, staroste of Lanckoron,a becomes the owner of Dębno, until that time the property of the Dębiński family, and in 1608, sons-in-law of F. Wesselini, Stefan and Paweł, handed over the property of Dębno to Jan Franksthym the Younger.

The history of the castle can be figured out from the inventory carried out in 1682 and inscriptions found on the walls:

an inscription on the southern façade plasterwork, reading “A.D. 1586 -SIM - ON”, which does not exist today, evidencing a conversion carried out under supervision of Jan de Simon, and date “1722” and letters “A.T.K.K.” being a monogram of Anna Tarło on the main portal in the curtain walls indicating that construction works were carried out in this period. In the 17th century, the northern building was extended to the west, and in 1777, as it is traditionally believed, at the request of Maciej Lanckoroński, the eastern polygonal part of the castle (probably a chapel) was demolished. After the Lanckoroński family, the family of Rogowski, Rudnicki, Spławski, and from 1835 on, Jastrzębki, became subsequently the owners of the property who—in accordance with the contemporary fashion—adopted the complex in Romantic style. As part of the works, battlements over the entrance curtain wall were built, and the whole building was covered by flattened roofs. In the late 19th century, works with the participation of a group of conservation specialists from Western Galicia (i.e. architects Sławomir Odrzywolski and Zygmunt Hendel) were carried out, which resulted in late-Gothic motifs and detail becoming more legible. In 1898, there is a fire in the castle which consumes mainly the interior of the building. During the First World War, the castle houses a field hospital, which results in further devastation of the interiors and fittings. After the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the village is taken by Germans already on 8 September. The castle, abandoned by its last owner Stanisław Jastrzębski, becomes a seat of occupation authorities. After the end of the war, it becomes a property of the State Treasury. Subsequent restoration works (1946-1957, arch. Stefan Świszczewski; 1967-1977) ended in the adaptation of the complex for the Museum of Castle Interiors.

Description

THE CASTLE IN DĘBNO BRZESKIE is located on a hill circumscribed by a moat, within a distance of approx. 500 m to the route from Brzesko to Tarnów, It is a quadrangular building with a rectangular yard. The gate leading to the yard is located in the northern wing. The whole two-storey castle has basements underneath some of its sections; its wings have a one-bay layout and adjoin one another with the corners.

The castle is made of brick, the façades are decorated with a rhombus pattern of nearly vitrified bricks. The north-western façade is plastered. Each of the castle wings is covered by a hip roof whose cladding was replaced in 1969 into Roman roof tiles.

The castle is owned by the State Treasury - the Regional Museum in Tarnów.

Opening hours: Tuesday to Friday 9.00 am to 3.00 pm, Saturday and Sunday 10.00 am to 3 pm

compiled by Grzegorz Młynarczyk, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Krakow, 08-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Zbigniew Bocheński: Dwór obronny w Dębnie; publ.1926
  • Zbigniew Bocheński; Stefan Świszczowski: Zamek w Dębnie-Pamiętnik Związku Historyków Sztuki i Kultury 1948; s.17-54
  • Czyżewski Krzysztof, Marek Walczak: Uwagi o późnogotyckim detalu architektonicznym w Dębnie koło Wojnicza-Zeszyty Wojnickie-2002, nr1, s.9-13
  • Laskowski Andrzej: Znaki Kamieniarskie na zamku w Dębnie-Teki Krakowskie T.10 (1999), s.65-72
  • Lidia Luchter-Krupińska: Dawne Widoki Zamku w Dębnie. Cz. 1,Malarstwo, rysunek, grafika-Tarnów: Muzeum Okręgowe,1990;
  • Dębno: przewodnik-Wyd.2 ,Tarnów: Muzeum Okręgowe,2006;
  • Kalendarium wsi Dębno, Tarnów: Muzeum Okręgowe,1987;
  • Zamek w Dębnie:[informator], 1992;
  • Zamek w Dębnie w dawnej fotografii-Rocznik Tarnowski,1994
  • Stefan Świszczowski: Odkrycia w zameczku w Dębnie-Ochrona Zabytków,1950, nr2/3, ws.164-165

General information

  • Type: castle
  • Chronology: 2. poł. XV w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Dębno 189
  • Location: Voivodeship małopolskie, district brzeski, commune Dębno
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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