Parish Church of St John the Baptist and St Roch, along with the fittings, wall and surroundings, Brochów
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Parish Church of St John the Baptist and St Roch, along with the fittings, wall and surroundings

Brochów

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A Gothic and Renaissance church in Brochów is unique in many terms compared to the sacred architecture of Mazovia. It is encastelled, which means that it bears features of a fortified temple, and belongs to a group of Renaissance buildings related to John the Baptist of Venice, which includes churches in Brok, Chruślin, Cieksyn and a collegiate church in Pułtusk. This group is distinctive for interrelated spatial and decorative solutions, particularly in the vault part with a characteristic decoration. In 1806 the Brochów temple hosted a wedding of Justyna Tekla Krzyżanowska and Mikołaj Chopin - parents of Frederic Chopin, and a baptism of the future composer on 23 April 1810.

History

The first temple in Brochów was built probably before 1113. In 1356 a parish already existed and a chaplain of Duke Ziemowit III exercised the function of a parson. In the years 1551-1561 the current church was erected owing to funds of Jan Brochowski, a commander of Warsaw, and his family. The authorship of the building is ascribed to the workshop of John Baptist of Venice. In 1561 the church was consecrated and dedicated in 1596. Probably in the early 17th century a defensive wall surrounding the church was erected and a moat was dug. The building, damaged during the Swedish Wars, was renovated and reconstructed in the years 1662-1665 upon initiative of Olbracht Adrian Lasocki, the future Starost of Wyszogród. The church underwent subsequent renovations in 1816 and 1858 and in the late 19th century. At the beginning of World War I the western and southern part of the building as well as vaults, interior and the surrounding wall were destroyed. In the years 1924-1929 the church was rebuilt under the supervision of architects Jarosław Wojciechowski and Tymoteusz Sawicki. During World War II it suffered another damage and in the years 1946-1948 it was reconstructed. In the years 1990-1999 preservation works funded by the Ministry of Culture and Art were carried out with certain interruptions at the church. In 2010 - the Chopin Year - the interior décor lost in 1915, among others, the wall painting on the vault, was restored. Recently, the renovation of the defensive wall has been completed.

Description

The church complex is situated in the southern part of the town, at a picturesque pond in the old bed on the left bank of the Bzura river, on the western part of the road. The oriented church stands in the centre of a rectangular parcel surrounded by a tall defensive wall with apertures and pentagonal bastions on corners. On the northern side, there is a plastered gateway with a triangular crowning and on the southern side, there is a wicket gate. Both passages were made around 1930 during the post-war reconstruction. A bell tower from the first half of the 19th century adjoins the external side of the northern section of the eastern curtain wall. The tower is quadrangular, plastered, two-storey with a pyramid hipped roof.

The church building is built of brick with visible post-scaffolding openings; it is plastered inside. The church has a basilica layout with a chancel and with an adjoining porch and sacristy from the north. In the south, it is terminated by a lower apse with a dome-vaulted choir gallery opening towards the nave with a semi-circular arcade. The main nave is crowned with a tall gable roof, while side naves are topped with pent roofs clad with roof tiles. The defensive character of the temple is attested by, among others, tall, cylindrical towers with apertures, crowned with conical roofs clad with sheet metal: the eastern one was added over the apse and the two western ones flank the narthex (a roofed vestibule). Communication between towers is provided by corridors with embrasures located over the inter-nave pillars and with semi-circularly terminating windows, opening towards the nave with archways. The sacristy includes a fireplace which was supposed to serve the preparation of meals for those under the siege. A tunnel arrangement of the interior of the nave and chancel, articulated by a system of arcades resting on pillars and covered with a common barrel vault with a characteristic network of coffer ribs in geometrical arrangement, represents a typical arrangement of the group of Mazovian temples designed by John Baptist of Venice. Side naves are also vaulted with ornamented barrels. Simple external façades are reinforced by buttresses that are reminiscent of the Gothic style and arcaded niches that support the porch in the chancel part. A modest front façade is distinguished for its semi-circular, stepped portal accentuated by embrasures and for its triangular gable above the pent roof of the narthex, decorated by lesenes and a panel. Inside, there is a large number of epitaph and commemorative plaques, bearing witness to the rich history of the temple.

The monument is available to visitors from the outside.

Compiled by Małgorzata Laskowska-Adamowicz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, 03-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Faryna-Paszkiewicz H., Omilanowska M., Pasieczny R., Atlas zabytków architektury w Polsce, Warszawa 2001, s. 289.
  • Hertz L. Mazowsze, Warszawa 2005, s. 256.
  • Kozakiewiczowie H. i S., Renesans w Polsce, Warszawa 1976, s. 121, 140-143.
  • Kunkel R.M., Architektura Gotycka na Mazowszu, Warszawa 2006, s.191-193
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. X: Województwo warszawskie, z. 24: Powiat sochaczewski, oprac. Galicka Izabella, Sygietyńska Hanna i Kaczmarzyk Dariusz, Warszawa 1973, s. 1-6.
  • Żabicki J., Leksykon zabytków architektury Mazowsza i Podlasia, Warszawa 2010, s. 23-24
  • Karta Ewidencyjna, Kościół parafialny pw. św. Jana Chrzcziciela i św. Rocha, oprac. Dobrowolska Barbara, Dobrowolski Jarosław, Brochów 1983, Archiwum NID.
  • Karta Ewidencyjna, Mur obronny wokół kościoła parafialnego i dzwonnica, oprac. Dobrowolska Barbara, Dobrowolski Jarosław, Brochów 1983, Archiwum NID.
  • http://brochow-parafia.pl/historia - dostęp 31-10-2014 r.

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1551-1561
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Brochów 70
  • Location: Voivodeship mazowieckie, district sochaczewski, commune Brochów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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