Complex of the Parish Church of St John the Baptist - Zabytek.pl
woj. lubelskie, pow. puławski, gm. Baranów-gmina wiejska
One of the churches designed by the Viennese architect Jozef Horsch.
The town of Baranów came into being in 1544 when the village of Laskowice (mentioned in historical records in 1334) became a town under a privilege granted by King Sigismund to Piotr Firlej, the Voivode of Ruthenia. The latter founded the first wooden Parish Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. John the Baptist. The church was consecrated in 1550. Mikołaj Firlej (son of Piotr), the Lublin Voivode, established a Calvinist parish here, which existed until 1595. The present-day church was built on the site of the first church in 1764-1781. It was funded by the parish priest Tomasz Okuński and built according to a design of the Viennese architect Józef Horsch (the design was previously attributed to the architect Józef Grinzenberger). The gate-belfry and the fence were built in the same period as the church. In 1915, on the site of the pre-existing clergy house from the 18th century, a new one was erected (currently the organist's house).
The church has been preserved in an unchanged condition. Several renovations of the church were undertaken, including those in 1873 (replacement of the roof truss), 1921 (replacement of the roof tiles with sheet metal), 1955-1956 (replacement of external plasters). More recent refurbishments have focused on the elevations of the church, the belfry and the fence with the shrines.
The church complex is situated on the eastern side of the former market square. It comprises the church, the gate-belfry, the brick fence with shrines and the former clergy house. Late Baroque church. Oriented. Erected on a floor plan incorporating a rectangular, three-bay nave with rounded corners and a two-bay chancel of the same height, but slightly narrower, topped with a semi-circular arch. On the sides of the chancel, there are two rectangular annexes – a two-storey sacristy from the north and a single-storey treasury from the south. The brick walls of the church are coated with plaster. The nave and the chancel are topped with arch-supported sail vaults. The walls of the nave are divided by pairs of pilasters which bear the weight of the entablature encircling the entire interior. Between the pilasters, there are the altar niches. The window openings are located above the entablature. The choir gallery with a protruding parapet is supported by a wide arcade. The nave and chancel are gable-roofed (the roof over the chancel is topped with a semi-circular arch).
The treasury has a two-slope roof, whereas the sacristy is topped with a three-slope roof. Both roofs are covered with sheet metal. The three-axial chiaroscuro façade is of the “undulating” type. It is divided in the giant order with concave-convex, double pilasters and Tuscan semi-columns and topped with an extensive, projecting entablature. On the ground floor of the façade, there are three portals with cornices. On the upper storey, there is a high, centrally placed window topped with a semi-circular arch and niches on the sides. The top rests on a balustrade attic decorated with a motif of ovals clustered together – a motif characteristic for Horsz. In the middle of the gable, there is a rectangular panel surmounted by Corinthian semi-columns, topped with a ‘broken’ pediment and a four-sided turret. On the sides, there are spiral, scroll-like ornaments (volutes). The side elevations of the nave and the chancel are divided by pairs of pilasters, topped with a profiled, ‘broken’ cornice. The eastern gable of the nave has a wavy outline and is topped with three turrets. The elevations of the treasury are divided by single pilasters. The sacristy has no architectural divisions and is finished with a profiled cornice. The décor and furnishings date to the times of the construction of the church (including 7 Baroque altars, a pulpit and a baptismal font).
Gate-belfry, late Baroque style, incorporated in the fence. Three-axial, consisting of a square, two-storey central part with a gate on the ground floor and a belfry on the first storey, and low side parts (stairs and a storeroom). It is made of bricks and covered with plaster. The main elevations are similar and articulated with pilasters (rusticated on the ground floor) and cornices. In the centre, there is a gate topped with a segmental arch. In the side parts of the façade, there are shallow recesses imitating entrance openings, with little oval windows “lying” above them. The upper storey incorporates arcaded bell-shaped openings, topped with a simplified entablature, with a cornice overhanging blind oculuses (in the eastern part, a founding inscription is engraved), covered with a four-span apparent dome topped with a pseudo-lantern with a cross. The single-storey parts are covered with little lean-to roofs.
The tops of the roofs are decorated with spiral, scroll-like ornaments (volutes). Roofs with sheet metal cladding. The fence is made of bricks and coated with plaster. It is a full wall topped with a little lean-to, tiled roof, with gates and four shrines incorporated in the wall. The shrines are gable-roofed and have shallow recesses facing the church cemetery. The clergy house has a floor plan of an elongated rectangle. It is one-storey with a two-bay interior layout. The clergy house is made of bricks and covered with plastered. It has a gable roof with sheet metal cladding. The longer elevations are topped with a profiled cornice. There is also a wooden porch at the front and a veranda overlooking the garden.
The heritage site is accessible upon prior arrangement by telephone.
compiled by Bożena Stanek-Lebioda, National Institute of Cultural Heritage, Branch Office in Lublin, 26 October 2017
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- Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Małopolska, multi-author compilation, Warsaw 2016, p. 151.
Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_N_06_ZE.94173, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_06_ZE.27499