Zamek residential tower - the ruins, Tudorów
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Zamek residential tower - the ruins

Tudorów

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The “castle” in Tudorów - originally composed of a defensive and representative tower, fortifications and residential and farm buildings - is a typical example of the Polish small-size knight’s seat of the late Middle Ages.

History

The “castle” in Tudorów was raised around the mid-14th century. The oldest record of the complex comes from 1371 which says that it belonged to a knight named Pełek. It is believed that he was the ancestor of the heirs of Tudorów, Mikołaj and Piotr of the Janina coat of arms, the contemporaries to Jan Długosz. During their time, the “stronghold" supposedly consisted of: a tower of a defense and prestigious function, a moat, stone-and-earth ramparts, causeways and ponds, as well as wooden farm and residential buildings. In 1517 the then the owner of the “castle”, Jan Toporowski, sold it to Crown Chancellor Krzysztof Szydłowiecki. The magnate turned it into the lodgings of the local manager of the grange, which had an adverse impact on the condition of the building. The successive owners, the Tarnowski family (1536-1567) or Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski (1567-1608) rebuilt the tower by altering its utility functions. They also permitted the disintegration of the defensive rampart and filled the south pond. The inventory of 1618 show what the "castle" assets were. It reports that it comprised the tower, covered with a bulbous dome, and the manor house, cheese-making box, bakery, 2 barns, 5 pigsties, stable, threshing shed, grain open storages, vegetable garden, 3 ponds with mills and 2 pools. Further transformation of the complex, probably made by the Lubomirskis, took place ca. mid-17th century. At that time, shooting inclinations and openings were made in the tower wall, and an earthwork was raised west of it. In the 2nd half of the 17th century, probably in the aftermath of the damages from the Polish-Swedish War, the tower was no longer used. In 1850 it was already a ruin when Michał Karski purchased it from the Potockis along with the grange. In 1944 the estate held by the Karskis was nationalized. In 1990 the complex was purchased by a private person.

Description

The ruins of the Tudorów “castle” can be found in the east part of the village. It can be accessed by a path going up from the building no. 9. From the original complex, the following are preserved: the ruins of the tower, the remains of stone-and-earth ramparts, the earthwork of the 17th century and the ponds (known only from archaeological research). The tower was raised on an elevated rock, above the valley of an unknown tributary of the Opatówka River. In the west of the headland, there is a plateau separated from the upland by a dry moat. Near the moat, there are visible relics of the rampart, also discernible upon a creek north and south of the tower. The four-sided tower, made of stone and fragmentarily of brick, was once plastered and had bossage elements on the corners; currently, it has approx. 20 m in height. It consists of a basement and three above-ground storeys, the highest being partially destroyed. On the ground level, in the west and east façades, there are entry openings (secondary?), and to the west there is a walled up pointed-arch window. In the south and east façade there are narrow shooting gaps. Inside the tower walls, there are visible openings left after ceiling joists. Their arrangement suggests that, over the centuries, the height of individual floors has been adjusted at least six times.

Private property. The site may be visited upon prior arrangement with the owner.

Compiled by Łukasz Piotr Młynarski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 22.07.2014.

Bibliography

  • Brykowska M., Fundacja Szydłowieckich - między gotykiem a renesansem, [w:] Fundacje kanclerza Krzysztofa Szydłowieckiego. Z dziejów budownictwa rezydencjonalno-obronnego na terenie dawnego województwa sandomierskiego, pod red. W. Iwańczaka, R. Kubickiego i D. Kaliny, Kielce 2011, s. 49-62.
  • Florek M., Tudorów wieża obronno-mieszkalna. Karta ewidencji zabytków architektury i budownictwa, Tarnobrzeg 1990 [Archiwum WKZ w Kielcach i NID w Warszawie]
  • Castrum Tudorow” -średniowieczna siedziba rycerska w Tudorowie, gm. Opatów, „Materiały i Sprawozdania Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego za lata 1985-1990“ 1992, s. 35-54.
  • Gosztyła M., Proksa M., Zamki południowo - wschodniej Polski. Przemyśl 1997. s. 117-119.
  • Kalina D., Wieża w Tudorowie, [w:] Fundacje kanclerza Krzysztofa Szydłowieckiego(…), s. 115-122.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. 3: Województwo kieleckie, red. J. Z. Łoziński i B. Wolff, z. 7: Powiat opatowski, oprac. K. Kutrzebianka i in., Warszawa [1959], s. 73.
  • Kieszkowski W., Kanclerz Krzysztof Szydłowiecki, t. 2. Poznań 1912, s. 284.
  • Kołodziejski S., Tudorów, woj. Świętokrzyskie, [w:] L. Kajzer, S. Kołodziejski, J. Salm, Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Warszawa 2001 , s. 508.
  • Kubicki R., Najstarsze opisy zamku w Opatowie, wieży w Tudorowie oraz dworów, zabudowań rezydencjonalnych i folwarcznych w dobrach opatowskich z 1618 roku, [w:] Fundacje kanclerza Krzysztofa Szydłowieckiego (…), s. 154-173.
  • Lasek P., Turris fortissima nomen Domini. Murowane wieże mieszkalne w Królestwie Polskim od 1300 r. do połowy XVI, Warszawa 2013, s. 221, 258-259.
  • Marcinak-Kajzer A., Sandomierskie rezydencje Tarnowskich w XIV - XVII wieku, [w:] Przemiany architektury rezydencjonalnej w XV - XVIII w. na terenie dawnego województwa sandomierskiego, red. J. L. Adamczyk, Kielce 2000, s. 19 - 36.
  • Wróblewski S., Zamki i dwory obronne województwa sandomierskiego w średniowieczu, Nowy Sącz 2006, s. 122-123.

General information

  • Type: castle
  • Chronology: poł. XIV w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Tudorów
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district opatowski, commune Opatów - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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